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发表于 2-20-2020 16:59:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 2-20-2020 17:16 编辑

Sean P Means, A New Utah Art Exhibit Offers a Rare Look at Japan in the Early 20th Century. Salt Lake Tribune, Feb 6, 2020
https://www.sltrib.com/artslivin ... ook-when-old-japan/

Note:
(a) photo captions of the gallery that comes with this art review:
(i) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) Field at Amakusa, 1922, woodblock print; ink and color on paper by Kawase Hasui."
(A) KAWASE Hasui 川瀬 巴水 (1883 – 1957)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasui_Kawase
(B) Amakusa  天草
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amakusa
(C) alternate English title: The Territory of Amakusa. The Japanese title of the woodblock print is 天草御領, in Kawase's 日本風景選集. 御領 is defined in (b).
(ii) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) at left, The Actor Nakamura Kichiemon I as Hoshikage Doemon, woodblock print; ink and color on paper with mica by Yamamura Koka (Toyonari)."
(A) The Actor Nakamura Kichiemon I as Hoshikage Doemon  梨園の華 初世中村吉右衛門の星影土右衛門  (The kichi is one Chinese pronunciation of 吉; 初世 = I (the First); emon = 右衛門 (right guard of a gate, which has two guards, the other being left guard; 星影 is surname, 土右衛門 gven name)
(B) The ja.wikipedia.org has a page for 山村 耕花, which states; "本名は豊成 [Toyonari]。耕花 [Kōka] と号す。"
(iii) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) Snow around a Shrine, 1929, woodblock print; ink and color on paper by Kawase Hasui."
(A) Snow around a Shrine  社頭の雪
(B) The name in another American museum:
Snow at Inokashira Benten Shrine (Translation) 川瀬巴水 社頭の雪(井の頭弁天) 昭和四年十月 木版画. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (Object Number: 2012.188).
https://www.vmfa.museum/piction/6027262-12944677/
(C) 井の頭 Inokashira (where i is 井, and kashira is 頭 in anatomy) is a place name in 東京都三鷹市. The metropolitan Tokyo is divided into (urban, flat) districts to the east and (rural and hilly) cities to the west. The ja.wikipedia.org for 井の頭 deals with its name origin: "井の頭の名は徳川家光 [第3代将軍] が鷹狩りに訪れ、湧水がほとばしるように出ているのを見て、「井の頭」と命名したとされている。神田川の源泉であり江戸市民の行楽地として親しまれてきた井の頭池の歴史にちなんでいる"
my translation: The origin of the place name is: To hunt with falcons, 徳川家光 visited here, saw water gushing out [even before his visit] and named the place 井の頭. The fountain called 井の頭池 as the source of 神田川, is 江戸市民の行楽地.

井の頭 has a park called 井の頭恩賜公園 Inokashira Park. The park includes, as well as the fountain, 大盛寺 (天台宗)  
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A4%A7%E7%9B%9B%E5%AF%BA

(In Japanese 辨 and 弁 are the same, one being formal. 弁護士 = lawyer)

A photo of the shrine:
明静山圓光院 大盛寺(通称:井の頭辨才天). 天台宗東京教区, undated (明静山 does not mean a mountain or a hill. In Japan, all shrines use 山号, even if it is situated in the plain.)
www.tendaitokyo.jp/jiinmei/daiseiji/
(D) Benzaiten  弁才天, 弁財天
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzaiten
(Benten for short; "Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries, mainly via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light [Chinese: 金光明經; the sutra also talks about Four Heavenly Kings 四大天王], which has a section devoted to her. * * * Benzaiten is a syncretic entity with both a Buddhist and a Shinto aspect")

syncretic (adj; Did You Know?)
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/syncretic

Due to its syncretic nature, Benzaiten is not found in Buddhism of PRC and Taiwan.
(iv) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) Seven Masters: 20th-Century Japanese Woodblock Prints curator Andreas Marks talks about the work titled After the Bath [浴後], 1917, woodblock print; ink and color on paper by Ito Shinsui."

Shinsui Itō  伊東 深水
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinsui_Itō
(born Itō Hajime 伊東 一 [hajime is usually represented by kanji 初])
(v) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) Scenes from the Tale of Genji, mid-19th century Japanese ink, gouache, paper, wood, silk and gold leaf by Kaiho Yusho II, 1818-1869."
(A) watermedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watermedia
(include watercolors, gouache and acrylic)

gouache (n; etymology)
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gouache
(B) Kaihō Yūshō  海北 友松
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaihō_Yūshō
(1533–1615; real name: Kaihō Shōeki [紹益])
(C) "Kaiho Yusho II, 1818-1869" is meant to cater to American audience. Two different artists from the same house 海北派 -- but separate by five generations -- shared the same English romanization (hence the II) whereas their Japanese names are different: The correct, and shared, romanization is KAIHŌ Yūshō. And their Japanese names were 海北 友松 (1533–1615) and his great-great-grandson (玄孫 in both Chinese and Japanese) 海北 友樵 (1817 or 1818-1869). The latter is one in the caption here.
(vi) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) Ushibori Moat in Rain,1929, woodblock print; ink and color on paper by Kawase Hasui."
(A) alternate title in English: Rain at Ushibori; the Japanese title is 雨の牛堀.
(B) 牛堀町
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/牛堀町
(was a town, which was abolished in 2001; presently part of 茨城県 潮来市; famous for "富嶽三十六景 [No 19] の「常州牛堀」はこの辺りを描いたものだと言われている")

(The ushi is Japanese pronunciation of 牛. The "h" in "hori" -- meaning a moat, a ditch -- is softened to "b" when the word is not placed at the beginning of a compound word.)

(vii) "(Leah Hogsten | The Salt Lake Tribune) The Actor Nakamura Utaemon V as Yodogimi [5代目中村歌右衛門淀君], woodblock print; ink and color on paper with embossing, Natori Shunsen."
(A) Nakamura Utaemon V  中村歌右衛門 (5代目)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakamura_Utaemon_V

TIn Japanese the 5代目 means The Fifth or the fifth generation, whereas 5代 means five generations.
(B) Yodo-dono  淀殿
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yodo-dono
(or Yodogimi 淀君; table: Born Chacha 茶々)

The ja.wikipedia.org says she was born 浅井 茶々 (also called お茶, which literally means tea, with o to show respect for tea), and that

Providing more information,
淀殿(淀の方、茶々)~豊臣家・我が子の為に生涯を全うした強き女性. 戦国武将列伝 1100記事. Dec 28, 2019
https://senjp.com/yodo/
("なお、淀君と言う呼び名もあるが「君」というのは遊女に付ける呼び名で、江戸時代につけられた蔑称であり、戦国時代の史料には一切見られず、現在はあまり使われないそうだ。しかし、淀殿と言う呼び名も、戦国時代の史料には見られず、淀の方と通称されていたようだが、このページでは「茶々」「淀殿」として紹介する。 * * * 豊臣秀吉は茶々の母•お市の方に憧れていたとされ、三姉妹の中で母の面影を一番よく受け継いでいた長女•茶々を、側室に迎えたと言われている。美貌の持ち主であったのだ。  すぐに茶々は懐妊し、喜んだ豊臣秀吉は山城の淀城を与え 、茶々の住まいとした為、茶々は「淀の方、淀殿」と呼ばれるようになった。 * * * この時豊臣秀吉は53歳")

my translation: Still, neither 淀君 nor 淀殿 was used in her lifetime: 君 in 江戸時代 applied to prostitutes 遊女, was 蔑称, and totally absent in 戦国時代の史料, so is 淀殿 in 戦国時代の史料.  At the time she was referred to as 淀の方. Here we call her 茶々, 淀殿. * * * 豊臣秀吉 adored 茶々's mother, お市の方 [again, の方 is probably an honorific, but her first half of life is little known, when she was a nobody]. Among the three daughters of お市, the oldest daughter 茶々 inherited [受け継ぐ] her mother's look [the most]. So 豊臣秀吉 married 茶々 as second wife [he had two wifves 妻: 正室 and 側室], because she was beautiful. Soon 茶々 was pregnant, and the overjoyed 豊臣秀吉 presented her with a castle in the hill [as opposed to on the plain] called 淀城, as her residence. Hence 茶々 came to be known as 淀の方、淀殿. * * * At the time, was 53 years old.

The nouns tono and kimi are defined in (b). Both todo and kimi are softened to dono and gimi, when placed not at the beginning of a compound word.

The marriage occurred in 1588; she was born in 1569: from https://senjp.com/yodo/
(C) NA-TORI Shunsen 名取 春仙 (1886 – 1960)
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 楼主| 发表于 2-20-2020 17:19:16 | 显示全部楼层
(b) Japanese-English dictionary:
* goryō 御領 【ごりょう】 (n): "land under the control of the imperial household or the shogunate"  (御 has a Chinese pronunciation go and a Japanese pronunciation o (as well as mi).)
* ri-en 梨園 【りえん】 (n):" theatrical world"  (Japanese romanization does not use letter L, only R.)
* shatō 社頭【しゃとう】 (n): "front of (the main building of) a shrine"
* tono 殿 【との】 (n): "(1) (hon[norific]) feudal lord"
* kimi 君(P); 公 【きみ】 (n): "monarch; ruler; sovereign"
* suru 刷る(P); 摺る 【する】 (v): "(1) to print; (2) to color or pattern fabric using a wooden mold  <私達は招待状を50通刷りました。 We ran off 50 copies of the invitation>"  (通 is Japanese counter for letter, much like 封 in Chinese.)
* hanga 版画(P); 板画 【はんが】 (n): "woodcut; woodblock print"
* yaku-sha 役者 【やくしゃ】 (n): "(See 俳優) actor; actress"


(c) Andreas "Marks * * * chose dozens of works of the art form called 'shin 新 hanga 版画,' or 'new print.' * * * Friedrich Capelari, an obscure painter from Austria. Capelari went to Japan to exhibit, and tried to emulate the style of the early 19th century artist Katsushika Hokusai (best known for his prints of Mount Fuji, including the iconic image of an ocean wave dwarfing the mountain). Capelari's work caught the attention of Watanabe Shizaburo, a publisher * * * After creating a few woodblock prints with Capelari, Watanabe found a Japanese artist willing to work with him: Hashiguchi Goyo."
(i) The ja.wikipedia.org for 浮世絵 has section 4 浮世絵版画の制作法, which says 版元 (publisher) hires 絵師 (who paints the woodblock), 彫師 (who cuts the woodblock, according to the paint) and 摺師 (who makes the prints).

In Japanese, 摺る is used in ukiyo-e, to describe rubbing and printing (on paper or cloth). Japanese use 折る (pronounced oru) to mean "fold."
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E ... 6%E4%BD%9C%E6%B3%95
(ii) "Watanabe Shizaburo."   It should be WATANABE Shōzaburō 渡辺 庄三郎.
(iii) KATSUSHIKA Hokusai 葛飾 北斎  (1760–1849; known for 富嶽三十六景 (c 1831), in particular 神奈川沖浪裏)

The kanji 葛 has Chinese pronunciation "katsu" and Japanese pronunciation "kuzu." The latter was absorbed into English as "kudzu."
(iv) HASHIMOTO Goyō  橋口 五葉 (1880 – 1921)   (The kanji 葉 has Chinese pronunciation yō and Chinese pronunciation ha.)

(e) differences between 浮世絵 and the subsequent 新版画 (both are 版画):
(i) shin-hanga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin-hanga

Quote:

introduction: "It maintained the traditional ukiyo-e collaborative system (hanmoto [版元; publisher] system) where the artist, carver, printer, and publisher engaged in division of labor, as opposed to the sōsaku-hanga [創作版画] (creative prints) movement which advocated the principles of 'self-drawn' (jiga [自画]), 'self-carved' (jikoku [自刻]) and 'self-printed' (jizuri [自刷; where 摺る (pronounced 'suru') has the consonant s softened to consonant z]; to convert a verb to a noun, switch the last vowel of the verb from u to i), according to which the artist, with the desire of expressing the self, is the sole creator of art.

section 3 Shin-hanga vs Ukiyo-e: "While shin-hanga prints retain much of the ukiyo-e tradition in terms of subject matter, they reveal vastly different techniques and sensibilities. Inspired by Western Realism, shin-hanga artists produce hybrids that combine modern design with traditional subjects. The use of naturalistic light, colored lines, soft colors, 3-dimensionality, deep space are artistic innovations that break with the ukiyo-e tradition.
(ii) 新版画  (section 1 概要: "どこか現代的なデッサンの美人画、役者絵、陰影のある風景画などが特徴である。また、外国人に人気があった花鳥画も多く描かれた。"  ja.wikipedia.org for 新版画.

my translation: section 1 Outline: In some respects, 美人画、役者絵 [役者 defined in (b)] with modern drawing [デッサン is katakana for French noun masculine dessin, meaning drawing, rough sketch in English; perhaps refers to perspective, etc] plus 風景画 with shades are representative. Moreover,  were well produced, popular among foreigners.
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