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Kiel, a German City, and World War I

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发表于 8-5-2014 18:25:15 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Alison Smale, Militarism and Humiliation Cast a Century-Long Shadow Over Germany. New York Times, Aug 3, 2014.
www.nytimes.com/2014/06/27/world ... till-resonates.html

My comment:
(a) This was obviously published online on June 27, 2014, according to the URL and teh date in the online version. However it is indeed published in print on Aug 3, which is acknowledged at the end of the text for the online version.

(b) Kiel
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel
(capital and most populous city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein; lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Hamburg [which is on the river Elbe; The name of the city is most likely derived from the wedge form of its bay (in German "keil"))
(i) The German spelling and pronunciation (same as the English noun “keel”) is the same as those of English.
(ii) German English dictionary”
keil (noun masculine): “wedge”
en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Keil

“The “keil” is pronounced the same as given name “Kyle.”
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyle_(given_name)

(c) “A sailors’ rebellion that started here [at Kiel] spread nationwide and helped force the abdication of the kaiser in November 1918. The next year, rather than let the Imperial Fleet fall to the enemy, German commanders on Scapa Flow, off Scotland, scuttled 52 of the fleet’s 74 vessels. Under the Treaty of Versailles, signed five years to the day after the archduke’s assassination, the proud navy was limited to just a few ships and 15,000 men — far fewer than the 35,000 German sailors who had perished in World War I."
(i) Kiel mutiny
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiel_mutiny
(Nov 3, 1918; section 3 Naval order of 24 October 1918 through section 5 The sailors' revolt in Kiel)
(A) section 4 The Wilhelmshaven mutiny: German sailors “refused to weigh anchor”

weigh (vt): “to heave up (an anchor) preparatory to sailing”
(B) Wilhelmshaven
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelmshaven
(In 1869, King William I of Prussia (later also German Emperor) founded the town)
(C) Imperial German Navy
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_German_Navy
(1871-1919 (when the ships were scuttled); section 2  1871 to 1888, Kaiser Wilhelm I: Kiel on the Baltic Sea and Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea served as the Navy's principal naval bases)

, whose battle fleet was High Sea Fleet (1907-1919)
(ii) Scapa Flow
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scapa_Flow
(section 5.2 The scuttling of the German fleet)
(A) bulkhead (partition)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulkhead_(partition)
(B) For SMS, see ship prefix
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship_prefix
(section 2 National or military prefixes: Austria-Hungary/ SMS/ (meaning) Seiner Majestät Schiff (English: His Majesty's Ship))
(iii) Treaty of Versailles
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles
(signed on June 28, 1919 with Germany only, in the Palace of Versailles, Paris)
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 楼主| 发表于 8-5-2014 18:25:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 choi 于 8-6-2014 09:14 编辑

(continued)

(d) “In 1906, Britain’s Royal Navy took delivery of HMS Dreadnought, with its groundbreaking armament of big guns. Wilhelm and top members of his navy and government responded with plans to build two dreadnoughts and one battle cruiser per year * * * Four battle cruisers were produced in Kiel from 1907 to 1910 * * * the Reichskriegshafen Kiel, the imperial war harbor here, profited. By the time war broke out in 1914, the navy had 22 pre-dreadnought ships, 14 dreadnoughts and four battle cruisers.”
(i) HMS Dreadnought
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Dreadnought
(ii) HMS Dreadnought (1906)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Dreadnought_(1906)
(In commission 1906-1919; the first battleship of her era to have a uniform main battery; the first capital ship to be powered by steam turbines, making her the fastest battleship in the world at the time of her completion; did not participate in any of World War I's naval battles as she was being refitted during the Battle of Jutland in 1916
(c) Reichskriegshafen
German English dictionary:
* reich (noun neuter): “empire”
* krieg (noun masculine): “war”
* hafen (noun masculine): “port, harbor”
* kriegshafen (noun masculine): “naval port, naval harbor”

(e) “Naval historians, however, tend to accord more significance to Germany’s U-boats, which were responsible for the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, for instance, eventually helping to draw the United States into Europe’s Great War. A similar shipbuilding boom erupted in the 1930s after Hitler took power and reached an agreement with Britain, ushering in a new wave of production of submarines and surface battle vessels. The shipbuilding made Kiel a prime target for Allied bombs, and by the end of the war in 1945, it was 80 percent destroyed. * * * Submarines are still built here. Sailors bob on Kiel Sound.”
(i) RMS Lusitania
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania(1906-1915; The ship's name was taken from Lusitania, an ancient Roman province on the west of Iberian Peninsula the region that now is Southern Portugal and Extremadura)
(ii) RMS = Royal Mail Ship
A similar shipbuilding boom erupted in the 1930s after Hitler took power and reached an agreement with Britain, ushering in a new wave of production of submarines and surface battle vessels. The shipbuilding made Kiel a prime target for Allied bombs, and by the end of the war in 1945, it was 80 percent destroyed.
(iii) bob (vi): "(with adverbial of direction) make a sudden move so as to appear or disappear <a lady bobbed up from beneath the counter>"
www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/bob

(f) “The histories of two concrete memorials illustrate the scars. One was originally intended to honor Germany’s naval dead in World War I. The other is the Flandernbunker, or Flanders bunker, built outside the main surviving military base here. Its name stems from a Nazi campaign to lionize the Germans killed in the World War I trenches, and it sheltered military commanders and select civilians in the global conflict that ignited two decades later. Today, a local art historian, Jens Rönnau, runs the bunker as an alternative arts and conference center with a goal of teaching peace and how to avoid future wars.”

Flandernbunker - Mahnmal Kilian e.V.
www.mahnmalkilian.de/flandernbunker.html

is in Kiel.
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