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Sake 酒

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发表于 8-9-2014 07:45:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura, Sake With Your Burger? Japan Is Looking West to Save a Tradition. New York Times, Aug 5, 2014.
www.nytimes.com/2014/08/05/world ... ve-a-tradition.html
(“Most Westerners generally view sake as a clear-colored liquor to be savored with sushi and sashimi, with an alcohol content of 15 to 20 percent. It is thought to have originated in the seventh century and is considered the drink of the gods in the Shinto religion”)

Note:
(a) It appears Kimiko TAMURA (surname: 田村) married a person whose surname is de Freytas. I find no Japanese version of the name. (In the Web, I find at least 喜美子, 貴美子, 希見子, 季実子 for Kimiko, where 見 and 実 shares the same Japanese pronunciation “mi; 喜, 貴, 希, 季 share Chinese pronunciation “ki”)

(b) Kensuke SHICHIDA 七田 健介 “runs the 140-year-old Tenzan brewery 天山造酒”
(i) The brewery is based in Saga Prefecture  佐賀県.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saga_Prefecture
(ii) Japanese English dictionary:
* shichi 七【しち】 (Chinese pronunciation)
* suke  助 【すけ】 (n): "assistance"

(c) “And sake’s umami — a savory sensation considered to be the “fifth taste” — helps improve their fleshiness.”

umami  旨味
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umami
(People taste umami through receptors for  monosodium glutamate (MSG))

(d) “At a recent dinner at Hixter, a restaurant here [London], the head chef, Ronnie Murray, paired a plate of Launceston lamb and meaty girolle mushrooms with Mr Shichida’s 75 Junmai, a full-bodied sake that uses unpolished rice, a rarity even in Japan. The Japanese generally prize sake that contains highly polished rice, which produces a flowery and smooth taste. By contrast, Mr Shichida’s sake had a round, woody flavor with a tempered acidity that complemented the earthy lamb.”
(i) Launceston, Cornwall
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Launceston,_Cornwall
(ii) For girolle, see Chanterelle
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanterelle
(Cantharellus cibarius, commonly known as the chanterelle, golden chanterelle or girolle)
* chanterelle (n; French, from New Latin cantharella, diminutive of Latin cantharus drinking vessel, from Greek kantharos)
www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/chanterelle
* girolle (n; French)
www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/girolle
, where the “o” is pronounced like “oat” and the “e” is silent.
(iii) “Mr Shichida’s 75 Junmai”

七田 七割五分磨 純米
Shichida Migaki 75% Junmai
* migaki 磨き 【みがき】 (n): "polish; improvement; burnishing"
* The kanji 米 has Japanese pronunciation “kome” and Chinese pronunciation “mai.”
* The kanji 酒 has Japanese pronunciation “sake” and Chinese pronunciation “shu.”
* 目錄索引 $ Price Lists: 日本清酒及其他 Japan Sakes and Others. The Sun and The Moon 日月紅酒匯, based in Kowloon 九龍), undated
www.sunandmoonwine.com/ref/38.pdf
(“[heading of the vignette/sidebar] Migaki 75% Junmai 七割五分磨 純米: 75% is polishing ratio which means only 25% rice is polished away. Brewery insists to use 100% high quality Yamadanishiki from Saga to brew ‘Shichida Migaki 75% Junmai’ with 75% polishing ratio (normal Junmai shu 酒 is around 60%). This is a brand new concept that is different from traditional way, rice flavor can be retained and it becomes the most popular brewing way nowadays”)
* wari 割【わり】 (n,n-suf[fix]): "10%; unit of ten percent"

For example:
* 1割 【いちわり】 (n): "ten percent"
* Yamada Nishiki 山田 錦
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamada_Nishiki
(a short grain Japanese rice, famous for its use in high quality sake)
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 楼主| 发表于 8-9-2014 07:46:09 | 显示全部楼层
(continued)

(e) “There are 80 types of rice specially designed to produce sake, which is made from fermented rice, water and koji — white rice imbued with a special kind of mold.“
(i) sake
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sake
(kōji mold 麹, Aspergillus oryzae; "kōji (rice and mold mixture)")

Two definitions, presumably because the fungus is preserved by setting aside the fungus-rice mixture.
(ii) kōji 麹 【こうじ】 (n): "mould grown on rice, barley, beans, etc. as a starter to make sake, miso, soy sauce, etc. (mold); malted rice; malt"


(f) “Sake ranges from sparkling, somewhat similar to Champagne, to namazake, which tastes best straight from the vat, unpasteurized. Meaning ‘raw sake,’ namazake offers a taste of the ethereal, as it can sour within hours. Some other sake uses yuzu, a Japanese citrus, making the drink a tangy cousin of the Italian limoncello, while umeshu is kind of a plummy version of the Hungarian dessert wine Tokaj.”
(i) namazake 生酒 【なまざけ】 (n): "unpasteurized sake"

Compare draft beer  生啤酒
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draught_beer
(section 1 Etymology)

What Is Pasteurized and Non-Pasteurized Keg Beer?  Micro Matic, undated.
www.micromatic.com/beer-question ... eg-beer-aid-45.html
(ii) yuzu  柚子
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuzu
(Citrus ichangensis × C reticulata)
(iii) limoncello
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limoncello
(an Italian lemon liqueur; made from the zest [qv; peels without the pith] of Femminello St Teresa lemons)

* pith (n): "1 : The spongy white tissue lining the rind of oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruits
1.1 : Botany The spongy cellular tissue in the stems and branches of many higher plants”
www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/pith

For definition 1.1 (but not definition 1), view only photos in pith
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pith
(iv)
(A) umeshu 梅酒 【うめしゅ】 (n): "ume liqueur; Japanese plum brandy; unripe ume infused in liquor (esp shochu) with added sugar"
(B)
* ume 梅【うめ(P) [hiragana]; ウメ [katakana]】 (n): "Japanese apricot (Prunus mume); Chinese plum"
Jim Breen’s online Japanese dictionary
* plum
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plum
("subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries * * * etc); section 2 Species")
* One of the species in “plum” immediately above, but obviously not commercially important because this species is not one of the two listed in section 2 (“Species”) of that Wiki page, is

Prunus mume
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_mume
, which is what Chinese and Japanese call 梅. Why “mume” in English? Because when English speaker(s) who made the first transliteration were mistaken--much like Japanese currency: “yen” in English but “en” 円 in Japanese.
(C) shōchū 焼酎 【しょうちゅう】 (n): "shochu; Japanese spirit distilled from sweet potatoes, rice, etc"
(D) shōchū
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sh%C5%8Dch%C5%AB
(“typically distilled from barley (mugi 麦), sweet potatoes (imo), buckwheat (soba 蕎麦), or rice (kome 米), though it is sometimes produced from other ingredients such as brown sugar, chestnut, sesame seeds, or even carrots. Typically shōchū contains approximately 25% alcohol by volume, which is weaker than whisky or standard-strength vodka but stronger than wine and sake”)

* The “imo” 芋 in Japanese language can mean all sorts of underground plant things to store nutrients. See 芋
ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/芋
(section 3 代表的な芋類; photos)
* Thus in Japanese, the sweet potato is 薩摩芋.
* sweet potato
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_potato
(section 1 Origin, distribution and diversity: originated in Central or South America; Due to a major crop failure, sweet potatoes were introduced to Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon)
* Sweet potato is 薩摩芋 because it was introduced to 本州 through Satsuma Domain 薩摩藩
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satsuma_Domain
, which in 1609 subjugated Ryūkyū Kingdom 琉球王国, which “found itself in a period of ‘dual subordination’ to Japan and China, wherein Ryukyuan tributary relations were maintained with both the Tokugawa shogunate and the Ming Chinese court.” en.wikipedia.org
* 焼酎 is distilled, whereas sake is “brewed, not distilled.”
(v) Tokaj
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokaj
(a town where the world famous Tokaji [qv] wine is produced)
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 楼主| 发表于 8-9-2014 07:46:48 | 显示全部楼层
(continued)

(g) Some lesser-known koshu, or aged sake, sells for more than $300 a bottle for a 40-year-old vintage. Shigeri Shiraki, whose family brewery in the mountainous region of Gifu was founded in 1835, is exploring how to make her 20-year-old aged sake, Daruma Masamune 達磨 正宗, palatable to Westerners. It is brewed manually by a handful of employees, and only in the winter, a practice among koshu brewers that dates to the 17th century. Mrs Shiraki said her brewery does not use refrigerators. On its own, her sake has a salty undertone reminiscent of soy sauce or Marmite, and it shares notes with port, sherry or the smoky-flavored Islay Scotch whisky. Mrs Shiraki suggested pairing it with a particularly rich dessert, pouring it over a slice of pecan pie and vanilla ice cream, or trying it as a digestive.”
(i) koshu 古酒 【こしゅ; ふるざけ】 (n): "well-cured sake; last year's sake; old sake"
(ii) Shigeri SHIRAKI  白木 しげり (where 白木 is the surname)
(iii) 商品一覧: Shigeri しげり. 達磨 正宗 (brewery), undated
www.daruma-masamune.co.jp/item/shigeri.html
(六代目白木善次; Shigeri-最愛なる娘の名前[(heading): ] 田崎氏なしでは、生まれなかったこの酒「Shigeri」(しげり)この名は、当時蔵を継いだばかりの蔵の次女の名前をつけた

translation: Yoshiji SHIRAKI, the sixth-generation brewer; Shigeri--name of the most favorite daughter: Without 田崎 [真也 Shinya TASAKI, President of the Association de la Sommellerie Internationale/ International Sommeliers Association 国際ソムリエ協会 会長 (2010- )], the brand name would not be born; this brand name was created by attaching the name of the second daughter of the brewer [白木善次] while she just inherited the brewery

English English dictionary:
sommelier (n; French): “a waiter in a restaurant who has charge of wines and their service :  a wine steward”
www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sommelier
(A) masamune 正宗 【まさむね】 (n): “(1) famous sword; sword blade by Masamune; (2) (col) * * * brand of sake from Nada region during Tempō 天保 [元号/年号] era (1830-1844)”
(B) 正宗 (曖昧さ回避)  Masamune disambiguation
ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/正宗_(曖昧さ回避)
(刀工のまさむね、及びその刀工による刀; 日本人の姓; 日本人の名; 日本酒の銘柄のまさむね。江戸時代に灘の清酒の銘としてつけられたのが最初で、「清酒」(せいしゅ)を「正宗」(せいしゅう)にかけたものとされる。元祖は桜正宗で、由来は桜正宗#商標の由来に詳述されている)

translation: swordsmiths, and the swords made by them; Japanese surname, Japanese given name; a brand of 日本酒 [= sake] brewed in 灘五郷 [in present-day City of Kōbe 神戸市] in Edo period [specifically 天保], applying “seishū 正宗” to “seishu 清酒;” the namesake/originator was 桜正宗, for whose etymology one should consult 桜正宗#商標の由来 [which says that Sakura Masamune 櫻正宗 [a brewery] started brewing in 1625, and went into the business in 1717. At the time of the founding, the brand name was "Shinsui 薪水," after an actress. Customers did not like a feminine name for sake, so the brewery owner contemplated changing the brand name. While visiting the chief priest 住職 of a Buddhist temple 瑞光寺 (located at 山城国深草), the owner saw sacred books/sutras 経典 [unlike in China, this term is for Buddhist classic books, not Confucian books] on a desk 机, with 臨済正宗 [on one of the books; 臨済宗 is a sect/school of Buddhism]. Because 正宗 and 清酒 sounded alike, the brewery switched the brand name in 1840 天保11年.

* 正宗 in Japan does not have the Chinese-language meaning of “veritable.”
* shinsui 薪水 【しんすい】 (n): "(1) * * * firewood and water; (2) gathering firewood and drawing water; kitchen work; housework"   (薪水 in Japan does not have the Chinese-language meaning of “salary, wage”)
(iv) Marmite
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marmite
(The image on the front of the British jar shows a "marmite" (French: [maʁmit]), a French term for a large, covered earthenware or metal cooking pot)

The English pronunciations for “marmite”:
www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/marmite
, whose second pronunciation if the one pronounced in France.

(h) Some chefs and food lovers describe the experiment with sake as a shot in the dark, but for [Japanese] brewers, the challenge is more urgent. Sake consumption has fallen sharply in Japan since the 1970s because of a decreasing birthrate and a switch by many drinkers to wine, much of it imported, or other domestic drinks like beer, whiskey or shochu, a Japanese spirit. * * * ‘The sake industry won’t survive on its local market,’ said Barry McCaughley, a food and beverage consultant based in London. * * * Mr McCaughley suggested doing away with sake’s usual comparison to wine, instead classifying it alongside craft beer because it shares a similar brewing process. He thinks that will help attract a younger crowd in search of new tastes. * * * As a young man, 17 years ago, he [Mr Shichida] was the first in his area to export, setting his sights on New York from his tiny town of Iwakura [佐賀県小城市小城町] 岩倉 in southern Saga Prefecture.”

A shot in the dark. The Phrase Finder, undated.
www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/318950.html
(“A shot in the dark' is simply a hopeful attempt to hit an enemy that you can't see”)
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