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'100th anniversary of the unification of Tuva with Russia': Itar-Tass

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发表于 9-10-2014 18:29:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
===============Intended for Publication on Sept 8

百年沧桑道不尽,图瓦今夕民心知. VOA Chinese, Sept 8, 2014.
www.voachinese.com/content/putin-tuva-20140908/2442495.html

Note:
(a) "俄罗斯总统普京参加了图瓦并入俄罗斯100周年庆典活动。曾是清帝国一部分的图瓦被中国人叫做唐努乌梁海。”

Tuva
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuva
(Its capital is the city of Kyzyl)

Quote: “The area of the republic is a mountain basin, ca. 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan 萨彦(岭) and Tannu-Ola 唐努(山)ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the republic's territory.”

(ii) history of Tuva
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tuva
(Tuva is named after the Turkic Tuvan (Tuva) people, Ch[inese] Tuoba (拓拔); The other appellation of the Tuvan people is Uriankhai)

Quote:

“The history of Tannu Uriankhai prior to the mid-18th century is poorly understood: There are few written sources; moreover, these sources often do not distinguish between the Tannu Uriankhai, the Altai Uriankhai, or the Altainor Uriankhai.

“The historic region of Tannu Uriankhai, which Tuva is part of, was controlled by the Mongols from 1207 to 1757, when it was brought under Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China) until 1911.

“After the demarcation of the Sino-Russian border by the Treaty of Kyakhta 恰克图界约 (1727), the Qing inexplicably placed border guards (‘yurt pickets,’ Mongolian: ger kharuul) south of the Tannu-ola Mountains separating Tannu Uriankai from Outer Mongolia, not along the Sayan Mountains separating the region from Russia. (This fact was used by 19th-century Russian polemicists, and later Soviet writers, to prove that Tuva had historically been ‘disputed’ territory between Russia and China.) The Qing military governor at Uliastiai, on his triennial inspection tours of the 24 pickets under his direct supervision, never crossed the Tannu-ola mountains to visit Uriankhai. When problems occurred meriting official attention, the military governor would send a Mongol from his staff rather than attend to the matter himself. Indeed, there is no evidence that Tannu Uriankhai was ever visited by a senior Qing official (except perhaps in 1726). Chinese merchants were forbidden to cross the pickets, a law not lifted until the turn of the 20th century. Instead, a few days were set aside for trade at Uliastai when Uriankhai nobles delivered their annual fur tribute to the military governor and received their salaries and other imperial gifts (primarily bolts of satin and cotton cloth) from the emperor. Thus, Tannu Uriankhai enjoyed a degree of political and cultural autonomy unequalled on the Chinese frontier

(b) “普京总统结束蒙古行后访问了与蒙古相接壤的俄罗斯图瓦共和国。普京星期六与俄罗斯国防部长绍伊古一同参加了图瓦并入俄罗斯100周年庆典活动。绍伊古拥有图瓦血统。 * * * 1914年图瓦以乌梁海边疆区的称号自愿成为俄罗斯的保护地 [protectorate]。 * * * 中国人把图瓦称为唐努乌梁海。 * * * 1921年在苏联策动下宣布 ‘独立,’1944年被前苏联兼并 [annexed]。"
(i) Sergey Shoygu
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergey_Shoygu
(1955- ; born in Chadan, Tuva to a Tuvan father and a Russian mother; Minister of Defense, Russia  2012- )
(ii) The years of Tuva became a Russia’s protectorate, an independent state, and was annexed are all correct in the VOA report.

(c) “俄罗斯的佛教和蒙古问题学者杰连基耶夫说,同俄罗斯的其他两个信封藏传佛教,以蒙古族为主的共和国布里亚特和卡尔梅克相比,图瓦受布尔什维克共产党的影响最大,相应地,那里的传统文化,特别是佛教被摧毁的程度也最大。苏联时代他在图瓦旅行时,当地居民家里几乎看不到任何佛龛。”
(i) 布里亞特共和國  Republic of Buryatia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buryatia

is on the right border of Tuva.
(ii) 卡尔梅克共和國  Republic of Kalmykia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalmykia
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