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Economist, Aug 19, 2017 + The 2011 Tsunami

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发表于 9-1-2017 09:59:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 9-1-2017 11:39 编辑

(1) Schumpeter  l  Ants in Your Pants; Meet the financial firm that makes bank bosses break into cold sweat. Economist, Aug 19, 2017
https://www.economist.com/news/b ... ayments-giant-keeps
("19bn cheques are written in the country [US] every year")

Note: This article is about Ant Financial.

(2) The Japanese tsunami  l  Death in the Afternoon; A mesmerising account of the 2011 tsunami in Japan highlights a striking pushback against official evasion. (1) Schumpeter  l  Ants in Your Pants; Meet the financial firm that makes bank bosses break into cold sweat. Economist, Aug 19, 2017
(book review on Richard Lloyd Parry, Ghosts of the Tsunami; Death and life in Japan’s Disaster Zone. 2017)

Note:
(a) "AT 2.46pm on March 11th 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 was recorded approximately 30km (18 miles) below the floor of the Pacific Ocean off Sendai, about 300km north-east of Tokyo. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded [emphasis is on 'recorded': with a scientific instrument] to have hit Japan, and scientists later determined that movement in the same subduction zone caused the 'Jōgan quake 貞観地震' of 869 [貞観11年], as well as related activity in 1896 and 1933 [昭和三陸地震; compare 関東大震災 (1923) ]. Like the recent 'Great East Japan Earthquake 東北地方太平洋沖地震,' as it has become known, that ancient earthquake more than a millennium ago generated a monster tsunami in its wake. Not having the precise instruments that recorded 40-metre-high waves in 2011, villagers in centuries past have placed stone markers along the hillsides roundabout to show how far the wall of water swept inland."
(i)
(A) Subduction Zone. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, undated.
http://www.geo.cornell.edu/hawaii/220/PRI/PRI_PT_subduction.html
(B) "Regions where this process [subduction] occurs are known as subduction zones." Wikipedia
(ii) Sanriku 三陸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanriku
(view map only)
, so named because between 1869 and 1871, the region is made up of three provinces 国: 陸奥国 (the kanji 奥 means 裏 in Chinese), 陸中国 and 陸前国 (in the order north to south),

(b) "Japan's tempestuous seismic history has led it to become especially vigilant about what to do in the event of an earthquake. The regular drills that have been developed for Japanese schools have proved remarkably effective. Of the 18,500 people who died as a result of the earthquake and tsunami in 2011, only 351 were children. Yet a large portion of those perished in just one place, the Okawa Primary School. 'Ghosts of the Tsunami' is the story of how those directly in charge that day failed to heed the warnings left on the hillsides by those earlier generations, and of how the families of the dead students coped when confronted with parents’ greatest nightmare"

For "warnings left on the hillsides by those earlier generations," see next posting.
(c) "The elderly were hardest hit [such as] * * * Takashi SHIMOKAWARA 下川原 孝, who died aged 104 * * * Next-hardest-hit were those who may not have fully understood the instructions or who thought they could grab some precious object at home before fleeing. A young American schoolteacher helped reunite students with their parents before trying to get to her flat, her father believes, to call home to let her family know she was all right. * * * Warning sirens sounded for about 45 minutes, which should have given them plenty of time to reach a place of safety. So what happened at Ōkawa Primary School 宮城県 石巻市立大川小学校 [abbreviation: 大川小]?"

Hailing from the metro area of Richmond, Virginia and having taught three years at Ishimaki, Mitagi Prefecture 宮城県石巻市 when the tsunami hit, Taylor Anderson, 24, pedaled home, from the school. Tsunami did not reach the school but submerged her home. Her body was recovered and returned to the States.
(d) "It was the indecisive reaction to the tsunami warning that followed which proved fatal. The headmaster, Teruyuki KASHIBA 柏葉照幸, was not at work that afternoon. * * * His deputy 教頭, Toshiya ISHIZAKA 石坂 俊哉, and several other teachers 教諭 decided not to evacuate. Ishizaka told parents who rushed to the school to rescue their children that they were safer there, and he also ignored a school bus parked on the grounds that could have saved everyone. Instead, he and the other adults who were responsible for the children’s safety pondered the meaning of the emergency manual's instruction to head for 'vacant land near school, or park, etc.' Nothing appeared to match these words, so they did nothing. * * * Along with the 74 children who died, most of their teachers also drowned psee the last posting for casualties]"

Japanese-English dictionary:
* kyōtō 教頭 【きょうとう】 (n): "deputy head teacher; vice principal"  (Pronunciation for 京都市 Kyōto is slightly different: a short vowel in the second syllable.)
* kyōyu 教諭 【きょうゆ】 (n): "(licensed) teacher"
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 楼主| 发表于 9-1-2017 10:01:56 | 显示全部楼层
Martin Fackler, Tsunami Warnings, Written in Stone. New York Times, Apr 21, 2011.
www.nytimes.com/2011/04/21/world/asia/21stones.html

Quote:

"Hundreds of so-called tsunami stones, some more than six centuries old, dot the coast of Japan, silent testimony to the past destruction that these lethal waves have frequented upon this earthquake-prone nation. But modern Japan, confident that advanced technology and higher seawalls would protect vulnerable areas, came to forget or ignore these ancient warnings, dooming it to repeat bitter experiences when the recent tsunami struck.

"Aneyoshi's tsunami stone is the only one that specifically tells where to build houses. But many of the region's names also seem to indicate places safely out of the waves' reach, like Nokoriya, or Valley of Survivors, and Namiwake, or Wave's Edge, a spot three miles from the ocean that scholars say marks the farthest reach of a tsunami in 1611.

Note:
(a) The top of the stone in the photo says, "大津浪記念碑" (right to left).

Japanese-English dictionary:
* tsunami 津波(P); 津浪; 海嘯 【つなみ】 (n): "tsunami; tidal wave"
* ane 姉(P); 姐 【あね】 (n): "older sister; elder sister"
* nokoru 残る(P); 遺る 【のこる】 (v): "to remain; to be left  <もう3ページ残っている。 I have three more pages to go>"

(b)  Aneyoshi is 姉吉 in 岩手県宮古市 姉吉漁港. The "ane" is defined in (a).

(c) "Nokoriya 残谷, or Valley of Survivors, and Namiwake, or Wave's Edge, a spot three miles from the ocean"
(i) 残谷 is located at 宮城県 本吉郡 南三陸町 入谷林際 (the last is a place name).

The noun "nokori" has a corresponding verb "nokoru," which is defined in (a).
(ii) Namiwake Jinja 浪分神社
https://japanshrinestemples.blog ... namiwake-jinja.html
(" 'Shrine where the waves parted'  宮城県仙台市若林区 * * * In 慶長16年(1611年)there was a strong earthquake and the tsunami reached till here, then parting in two and receeding")

(d)
(i) "Itoko KITAHARA 北原 糸子, a specialist in the history of natural disasters at Ritsumeikan University 立命館大学 [private] in Kyoto"
(ii) "Fumio YAMASHITA 山下 文男, [87,] an amateur historian in Iwate Prefecture 岩手県, where Aneyoshi is situated"
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 楼主| 发表于 9-1-2017 10:03:57 | 显示全部楼层
Richard Lloyd Parry, The School Beneath the Wave: the Unimaginable Tragedy of Japan's Tsunami. Daily Guardian, Aug 24, 2017 (under the heading "The Long Read").
https://www.theguardian.com/worl ... y-of-japans-tsunami

Note:
(a) "Okawa elementary school 大川小学校 was more than 200 miles north of Tokyo in a village called Kamaya 釜谷 [in fact, 釜谷 is not a village but 石巻市釜谷地区], which stands on the bank of a great river, the Kitakami 北上 [川], two miles inland of the point where it flows into the Pacific Ocean. * * * this region of Japan, known as Tōhoku 東北"
(b) "Lessons at Okawa elementary school finished at 2.30pm. At 2.45pm, the school bus was waiting in the car park with its engine running"
(c) "here was an obvious place of safety. The school was immediately in front of a forested hill, 220 metres high at its highest point. * * * Within five minutes – the time it had taken them to evacuate their classrooms – the entire school could have ascended * * * One senior teacher, Junji ENDŌ 遠藤 純二 教務主任[:] * * * 'To the hill! The hill! Run to the hill [裏山: literally the hill in the back of the school]!' * * * sixth-year teacher, Takashi SASAKI 教諭 佐々木 孝
(d) "Toshinobu OIKAWA [石巻市 河北総合支所 地域振興課 課長補佐, where the last means 'assistant/aide to 課長'] 及川 利信 – a grey-suited man in his late 50s who worked in the local branch of the Ishinomaki town [should be 'city'] government * * * received [a tsunami warning] from the Meteorological Agency 気象庁 * * * Oikawa and five of his colleagues were climbing into three cars mounted with rooftop speakers of their own, and setting out to deliver the warning in person. * * * Oikawa became aware of something extraordinary taking place two miles ahead of them, at the point where the sea met the land. The place was Matsubara 松原, the spit of fields and sand where a ribbon of pine forest [whose tallest trees are 20 meters high and yet tsunami overwhelmed the pines]
(e) "At 3.30pm, an elderly man named Kazuo TAKAHASHI 高橋 和夫 fled his home next to the river [by car for the hill behind the elementary school]. He too had ignored the warnings, until he became abruptly aware of the sea streaming over the embankment beside his house. It seemed to be coming from below the earth, as well as across it: metal manhole covers in the road were being lifted upwards by rising water; mud was oozing up between the cracks that the earthquake had opened in the road. * * * Takahashi parked his car next to the school. As he climbed out and made for the hill, he became aware of a large number of children issuing forth from the school in a hurry.  Among them was Tetsuya TADANO 只野 哲也 [5年生/小5, age 11, whose father lived but paternal grandfather, mother (しろえ; not represented by kanji) and third-grade sister Mina 3年生で長女の未捺 died in the tsunami], who had remained in the playground with his class. Mr Ishizaka, the deputy head, was absent from the playground. He reappeared suddenly. 'A tsunami seems to be coming,” he called. “Quickly. We’re going to the traffic island. Get into line, and don’t run.' * * * Tetsuya's first thought was that he and his friend [Kohei TAKAHASHI, who had given him a hand] were already dead. He took the raging water to be the River of Three Crossings, the Japanese equivalent of the River Styx. * * * Only later would the full scale of the tragedy at Okawa elementary school become clear. The school had 108 children. Of the 78 who were there at the moment of the tsunami, 74 of them, and 10 out of the 11 teachers, had died. * * * Nowhere in Japan are precautions against natural disaster more robust than in state schools. On 11 March 2011, out of 18,000 people killed by the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, only 75 were children in the care of their teachers. All but one were at Okawa elementary school."
(i)
(A) issue (vi) :
"1a : to go, come, or flow out
b: to come forth : EMERGE"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/issue
(B) issue (v): "(issue from)  [no object]  come, go, or flow out from  <exotic smells issued from a nearby building>"
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/issue
(ii) The "traffic island" (Japanese: 三角地帯) is where 新北上大橋 [this Guardian article: New Kitakami Great Bridge] and 堤防道路 meet, whose elevation is merely 6m.

Maos can be viewed in
大川小学校事故検証報告書. 株式会社 社会安全研究所, Feb 26, 2014
http://www.e-riss.co.jp/oic/pg85.html
("報告書②・・・1.事故の概要、2.事故検証の経過.")
(iii) Sanzu River  三途の川
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanzu_River

(f) I will stop here, and go no further in the Guardian article (about a civil action in the Sendai court).
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