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Two Poems by Shelley

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发表于 10-24-2018 13:46:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Two poems by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Each in its own form of English poem: (1) is a terza rima and (2) is a sonnet. Both forms were invented in Italy, with the sonnet ultimately from Latin noun masculine sonos sound.

(1) Ode to the West Wind.

Note:
(a)
(i) Percy Bysshe Shelley
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percy_Bysshe_Shelley
(1792-1822 (drowned); section 1 Life, section 1.1 Early life and education: In 1910 he matriculated at Oxford, Legend has it that Shelley attended only one lecture while there for a year, expelled ostensibly for atheism and possible for anti-monarchical view; section 3 Family history, section 3.2 Ancestry chart: One of his great-great grandmother on his father's side was a Bysshe)
(ii)
(A) The English surname (of Norman origin) is name of many places in northern France, "so called from the Gallo-Roman personal name Persius + the locative suffix -acum."
(B) The English surname Shelley is from name of "various places, for example in Sussex, Suffolk, Essex, and West Yorkshire, all so named from Old English scylf shelf + leah wood, clearing."

(b) Ode to the West Wind
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ode_to_the_West_Wind
(written "in 1819 near Florence, Italy * * * Shelley wanted his message of reform and revolution spread, and the wind becomes the trope for spreading the word of change  * * * The poem Ode to the West Wind' consists of five sections (cantos) written in terza rima. Each section consists of four tercets [also known as 'stanzas' here] (ABA, BCB, CDC, DED) and a rhyming couplet (EE). The Ode is written in iambic pentameter")

From merriam-webster.com for each word: The English noun canto was borrowed from "Italian, from Latin [noun masculine] cantus [whose plural is cantūs] song, from [verb] canere to sing." The English noun incantation "comes directly from the Latin word incantare enchant [defined as 'to influence by or as if by charms and incantation']. Incantare itself has cantare as a root."  The English verb chant is "from Latin cantare, frequentative of canere to sing."   The English noun and verb charm is "from Latin [noun neuter] carmen [whose plural is carmina] song, from canere to sing."
(c) For this ode/ poem, there is no need to read it (which is about (west) wind, except the last two lines (which is a couplet with rhyme EE), particular the last line: "If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?"  Note the pentameter.  

There is no need to read the rest of this Wiki page. Do click the links.
(i) pentameter (pronunciation; Did You Know?)
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pentameter

Robert Frost's duplicated "And miles to go before I sleep" is a couplet (though in Ode to the West Wind, the couplet is not duplicated /identical -- but rhymed). In fact, the en.wikipedia.org for couplet includes a section for Chinese one: 春联 (my note: also known as 对联).
(ii) tercet (n; etymology: Italian [noun masculine] terzetto [trio in music/poetry or for persons] from diminutive of [noun or adjective masculine] terzo third, from Latin [noun masculine; from trēs three] tertius [third] — more at THIRD):
"a unit or group of three lines of verse"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tercet

Italian-English dictionary:
* rima (noun feminine): "rhyme"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/rima
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 楼主| 发表于 10-24-2018 13:57:31 | 显示全部楼层
(2) Ozymandias.

Note:
(a)
(i) Ramesses II (also spelled Ramses; 1303 - 1213 BC (age 90), reigned 1279–1213 BC; also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt)  en.wikipedia.org/ for Ramesses II.
(ii) "The various forms [in English] are based on the Greek (Ραμεσσυς: Ramessus), Latin (Ramesses), or Hebrew (רעמסס: Raˁamses, Raˁmeses) forms of the name, all ultimately based on the Ancient Egyptian form: rˁ-ms-sw 'Ra [is] the one who gave birth [to] him.' "  en.wikipedia.org/ for Ramesses.

The Ra is a deity in ancient Egypt.
(iii) Ramesseum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesseum
(across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor [which is on 'the site of the Ancient Egyptian city of Waset, known to the Greeks as Thebes'])

section 3 Excavation and studies: "the cartouche on its [Younger Memnon's] shoulder bearing Ramesses's throne name, User-maat-re Setep-en-re, the first part of which Diodorus transliterated into Greek as 'Ozymandias [in fact, 'Osymandias' (see (a)(iv) below) or Osymandyas (see ©(ii) below)].' While Shelley's 'vast and trunkless legs of stone' owe more to poetic license than to archaeology, the 'half sunk... shattered visage' lying on the sand is an accurate description of part of the wrecked statue. The hands, and the feet, lie nearby."

(A) Click Younger Memnon and the new Wiki page mentions Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III (reign ~1386- ~1349 BC) which still displays Colossi of Memnon. The English noun colossi is the plural form of colossus. Colossi of Memnon (not shown in the Wiki page for Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossi_of_Memnon
is a bit taller (18m) and bigger, but more rugged, than Younger Memnon.

When Napoleon arrived in Egypt, there were two identical Ramesses II statutes of stone, one on each side of the doorway (to Ramesseum). The French could not move a statute or part of it back to Paris. The British managed to bring one bust back to London after defeating Napoleon.
(B) In section 3, pay attention to two photos:
* On the left margin is a digitally altered photo showing the Ramesses II bust (which is colored somewhat darkish) now in British museum is superimposed to the rest that remains in Ramesseum.

kairoinfo4u, Ramesseum: The remaining part of the 'young Memnon'. Flickr, Jan 8, 2016.
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ma ... -72157600017877014/

The title in the Flickr should be "Younger" Memnon.
* On the right margin is an old photo in Brooklyn Museum that showed the other head of Ramesses II was on the ground (and remains there).
(iv)
(A) Ramesseum.  Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ramesseum
("The temple, famous for its 57-foot (17-metre) seated statue of Ramses II (of which only fragments are left) * * * This temple is identified with the “Tomb of Osymandias” (a corruption of Ramses II's prenomen) described by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC")
(B) The Ramesseum. Weebly, undated.
https://ramessesthesecond.weebly.com/ramesseum.html
(description and an aerial view)

Amun
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amun
("After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I (16th century BC), Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra")

The Oxforddictionaries.com gives the pronunciation for Amun/Amon as ˈamən.
(v) At the time of Ramesses II, a pharaoh had five names. See
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_royal_titulary
(section 4 Throne name (prenomen) )
(A) Take notice the depiction of sedge and of bee in that section. Also, English borrowed noun nomen (as in nomenclature) from Latin noun neuter of the same spelling that means "name."

Sections 1 to 5 respectively concerns each of the five names; section 6 gives two examples, in hieroglyph.
(B) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_II
("He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources (Koine Greek: Οσυμανδύας Osymandýas), from the first part of Ramesses' regnal name [prenomen in ancient Egypt and 年号 in Chinese and Japanese emperors, such as Qianlong Emperor), Usermaatre Setepenre, 'The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra' ")
(C) Scarab Inscribed With the Prenomen of Ramesses II and depicting the king in his chariot trampling an enemy. Metropolitan Museu of Art, undated (Accession Number: 26.7.215).
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/549241

scarab (n; etymology)
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/scarab


(b) Shelley's Ozymandias is a sonnet.
(i) The Sonnet: Poetic Form. Academy of American Poets, undated.
https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/sonnet-poetic-form
("Two sonnet forms provide the models from which all other sonnets are formed: the Petrarchan and the Shakespearean * * * The first and most common sonnet is the Petrarchan, or Italian. Named after one of its greatest practitioners, the Italian poet Petrarch, the Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two stanzas, the octave (the first eight lines) followed by the answering sestet (the final six lines). The tightly woven rhyme scheme, abba, abba, cdecde or cdcdcd, is suited for the rhyme-rich Italian language, though there are many fine examples in English. * * * The second major type of sonnet, the Shakespearean, or English sonnet, follows a different set of rules. Here, three quatrains and a couplet follow this rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg. The couplet plays a pivotal role")

This page illustrates with Shakespeare's sonnet 130. So I will digress. "Sonnet 130 satirizes the concept of ideal beauty that was a convention of literature and art in general during the Elizabethan era."  en.wikipedia.org for "Sonnet 130." I will focus on the last two line, the couplet:
"And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
as any she belied with false compare."

Shmoop: "Here are two lines in plain English: the speaker thinks that his lover is as wonderful ('rare') as any woman ('any she') who was ever misrepresented ('belied') by an exaggerated comparison ('false compare').

Here is the side-by-side interpretation of Sonnet 130.
www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/130detail.html
(A) Academy of American Poets
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_of_American_Poets
("The Academy of American Poets is a national, member-supported organization that promotes poets and the art of poetry. * * * The Academy of American Poets was created in 1934 in New York City by 23-year-old Marie Bullock [8] with a mission to 'support American poets at all stages of their careers and to foster the appreciation of contemporary poetry.' In 1936, the Academy of American Poets was officially incorporated as a nonprofit organization. Marie Bullock was the president of the Academy of American Poets for the next half a century, running the organization out of her apartment for thirty of those years")
(B) Petrarch
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrarch
(Italian: Francesco Petrarca; 1304 – 1374)

In English the ch in his surname is pronounced k.
(ii) Ozymandias Analysis: Form and Meter. Shmoop, undated (under the heading "Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley")
https://www.shmoop.com/ozymandias/rhyme-form-meter.html

Quote:

"The Petrarchan sonnet is structured as an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines). The octave often proposes a problem or concern that the sestet resolves or otherwise engages. The ninth line – the first line of the sestet – marks a shift in the direction of the poem and is frequently called the 'turn'

"Shelley's sonnet is a strange mixture of these two forms [Petrarchan and Shakespearean]. It is Petrarchan in that the poem is structured as a group of eight lines (octave) and a group of six lines (the sestet). The rhyme scheme is initially Shakespearean, as the first four lines rhyme ABAB. But then the poem gets strange: at lines 5-8 the rhyme scheme is ACDC, rather than the expected CDCD. For lines 9-12, the rhyme scheme is EDEF, rather than EFEF. Finally, instead of a concluding couplet we get another EF group. The entire rhyme scheme can be schematized as follows: ABABACDCEDEFEF.

(c) Analyze lines in Shelley's Ozymandias.
(i) The traveller (American spelling: traveler) said from line 2 to line 8.

"a shattered visage [the subject of the sentence] lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer [noun] of cold command,
Tell [verb] that its sculptor well those passions read
Which [passions] yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things [the two (broken) statutes],
The hand that mocked them [lifeless things or statutes] and the heart that fed"

The shattered face is not completely shattered, displaying the described emotions, indicates the sculptor read the pharaoh's passions well (while living as sculptor's model). Sculptor's hand mocked the passion and sculptor's heart fed (those same passions).

Who shattered the statutes (of Younger Memnons)? The French during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt. Egypt was a semi-autonomous province (1517–1867) of Ottoman Empire. Suez Canal opened in 1869.
(A) Napoleon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon#Egyptian_expedition
(section 2.4 Egyptian expedition: July 1, 1798 - Sept 2, 1801 ["Result[:] Ottoman-British victory: en.wikipedia.org for 'French campaign in Egypt and Syria']: "British fleet under Sir Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile * * * Bonaparte began with an army of 13,000 men; 1,500 were reported missing, 1,200 died in combat, and thousands perished from disease—mostly bubonic plague. He failed to reduce the fortress of Acre [in present-day Israel], so he marched his army back to Egypt in May[, 1799]. To speed up the retreat, Bonaparte ordered plague-stricken [French] men to be poisoned with opium")
(B) VUSIEM_ED (author's name), Vanity of Kings -- The Story Behind the Colossal Rameses II Statue in British Museum. Museum Tour Guides
http://www.museumtourguides.com/ ... -in-british-museum/
("Napoleon's men tried to remove the statute [that later came to British museum] from the Ramesseum in 1798, but failed. There is a hole about the size of a tennis ball drilled into the torso, just above the right breast, which experts think came from this attempt. By 1799, the statute was broken and lay there ignored")\

So the moral of the shattered statute should not be the the hubris and downfall of a dictator, but depredation of colonial powers.
(ii) "And on the pedestal these words appear:
'My name is Ozymandias, king of kings;
[You] Look on my works, ye Mighty, and [you] despair!'
Nothing beside remains. Round [Around] the decay"

The Library of History of Diodorus Siculus. vol 1. Loeb Classical Library edition, 1933, pages 168-169
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Tha ... Diodorus_Siculus/1C*.html
("beside the entrance are three statues, each of a single block of black stone from Syene, of which one, that is seated, is the largest of any in Egypt, the foot measuring over seven cubits, while the other two at the knees of this, the one on the right and the other on the left, daughter and mother respectively, are smaller than the one first mentioned. And it is not merely for its size that this work merits approbation, but it is also marvellous by reason of its artistic quality and excellent because of the nature of the stone, since in a block of so great a size there is not a single crack or blemish to be seen. The inscription upon it runs: 'King of Kings am I, Osymandyas. If anyone would know how great I am and where I lie, let him surpass one of my works' ")

Diodorus Siculus ("fl. [flourish] 1st century BC")  en.wikipedia.org/wiki.  It is unknown whether the inscription remained on the eve of Napoleon invasion. But See the Economist.

Bibliotheca historica
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliotheca_historica (
(Greek for "Historical Library"/ "It consisted of forty books * * * Diodorus' immense work has not survived intact; only the first five books and books 11 through 20 remain. The rest exists only in fragments * * * The earliest extant manuscript of Bibliotheca historica is from about 10th century")

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