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Ezra Pound's Cathay

发表于 1-16-2019 17:26:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 1-17-2019 15:56 编辑

(I) Cathay (poetry collection)

(a) Book of Ezra is found in Old Testament. Ezra "was a Jewish scribe (sofer) and priest (kohen [Hebrew for priest])."  en.wikipedia.org for Ezra.
(b) Ernest Fenollosa (1853 (Salem, Massachusetts) – 1908 (London); father was a Spanish pianist; graduated from Harvard with a bachelor's degree; a professor at  Tokyo Imperial University)  en.wikipedia.org.

Because of Fenollosa, Ezra Pound employed, throughout Cathay, Japanese way to pronounce Chinese proper names (complete list: 李白, 屈原 (Kutsu-gen), 周 (Shū the dynasty). 楚 (So the country in 春秋战国), 天津 (Ten-Shin), 洛陽 (Raku-yō), 元 (Gen), 故人 (kojin), 黄 (kō) , 鶴 (kaku), 樓 (rō), 蜀 (Shoku), 吴 (Go), 晋 (Shin), and 越 (etsu) ) -- BUT not 枚乘.

(II) Ezra Pound, Cathay. London: Elkin Mathews, 1915.

A note at the outset of the book (by the author Ezra Pound]: "Rihaku flourished in the eighth century of our era. The Anglo-Saxon Seafarer is of about this period. The other poems from the Chinese are earlier."

table of contents:
(1) "Song of the Bowmen of Shu. By Kutsugen. 4th Century BC."   采薇 in 诗经·小雅
(2) "The Beautiful Toilet. By Mei Sheng.  BC 140."  青青河畔草 (作者: 佚名 (but zh.wikisource.org says by 枚乘); line 1: 青青河畔草,郁郁园中柳) in 古诗十九首 )
(3) "The River Song. By Rihaku. 8th century AD."
(4) "The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter, By Rihaku."
(5) "The Jewel Stairs' Grievance. By Rihaku."  李白, 玉阶怨
(6) "Poem by the Bridge at Ten-Shin. By Rihaku"  李白, 天津三月时
(7) "Lament of the Frontier Guard. Rihaku." 李白, 胡关绕风沙
(8) "Exile's Letter. By Rihaku."  李白, 忆旧游寄谯郡元参军
(9) The Seafarer (From the early Anglo-Saxon text)

From Rihaku  Four Poems of Departure
(10) The first (untitled) is actually 王维, 渭城曲.
(11) Separation on the River-Kiang  李白, 黄鹤楼送孟浩然之广陵
(12) Taking Leaves of a Friend  李白, 送友人
(13) Leave-Taking Near Shoku 李白, 送友人入蜀  
(14) The City of Choan  登金陵凤凰台
(15) South-Folk in Cold Country. [古风第十四首·代马不思越]

(a) "Song of the Bowmen of Shu. By Kutsugen. 4th Century BC."  采薇 in 诗经·小雅
(i) Kutsugen or Kutsu Gen is Japanese pronunciation for 屈原, with both kanji in Chinese pronunciation.
(ii) Obviously Pound made an error by attributing 采薇 to Kutsugen.
(iii) A bowman is an archer. Shū is 周 dynasty -- and Japanese pronunciation for kanji 周.
(i) toilet (n): "[in singular]  the process of washing oneself, dressing, and attending to one's appearance  <her toilet completed, she finally went back downstairs>"  (brackets in original)
(ii) MEI Sheng 枚乘 (? - 140 BC; 西汉; 辞赋家)  zh.wikipedia.org.
(c) The River Song's first half is a complete translation of 江上吟 ("木兰之枻沙棠舟,玉箫金管坐两头。" to " 功名富贵若长在,汉水亦应西北流。"

"This boat is of shato-wood, and its gunwales are cut magnolia, Musicians with jewelled flutes and with pipes of gold Fill full the sides in rows" to "If glory could last forever
Then the waters of Han would flow northward."). "楚王" as "King So."

The second half of The River Song is a complete translation of 侍从宜春苑奉诏赋龙池柳色初青听新莺百啭歌, complete with the title itself: "And I have moped in the Emperor's garden, awaiting
an order-to-write!  I looked at the dragon-pond, with its willow-coloured water Just reflecting the sky's tinge, And heard the five-score nightingales aimlessly singing."
(d) かんさん (blogger name), 古風.其十八. In certain of his blogs 唐詩李白詩選集. Apr 26, 2013
(line 1: "天津三月時,千門桃與李。 * * * 【大意】 洛陽の天津橋から見わたすと、時は春三月、千門たちならぶ都大路には、桃と李の花が今をさかりと咲いている")
(i) my rough translation: Overlooking from 洛陽の天津橋 in March, (I saw) trees of peach and plum in full bloom alongside the thoroughfare of capital by the gate 千門
(ii) Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary:
* miwatasu 見渡す(P); 見わたす 【みわたす】 (v): "to look out over; to survey (scene); to take an extensive view of  <この城から町を見渡すことができる。        This castle overlooks the city.>"
* tachi-narabu 立ち並ぶ【たちならぶ】 (v): "to line in a row; to line"
   ^ narabu 並ぶ(P); 列ぶ 【ならぶ】 (v) : "to line up; to stand in a line"
* sakari  盛り 【さかり】 (n-suf[fix]) : "(ざかり when used as a suffix) peak (eg of cherry blossom season); height (eg of summer); (2) prime (of one's life); one's best days"
(e) Exile's Letter  忆旧游寄谯郡元参军
(line 1: "To So-Kin of Rakuyo, ancient friend [old friend], Chancellor of Gen. Now I remember that you built me a special tavern"   忆昔洛阳董糟丘,爲余天津桥南造酒楼。)
(A) 古代參軍如何選出來?? Yahoo奇摩知識+, Nov 8, 2009
https://tw.answers.yahoo.com/que ... 00010KK07959&p=參軍%20唐朝官
(昏叫 (name of the person who provided the answer): "官名 * * * 參軍或參軍事,本參謀軍務之稱")
(B) "谯郡:今安徽毫县。元参军:名演": 百度百科.
(A) Regarding "So-Kin."  The Chinese pronunciations of kanji 糟 and 丘 are sō and kyū, respectively. So Pound might have made an error: it should have been "sō-kyū."
(B) 董糟丘 is name of 李白's friend, according to
殷春梅, 李白诗歌中的人名运用. 马鞍山市博物馆, Oct 26, 2009
webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:6hp5qoLUP2YJ:www.mas-museum.com/news/0910/2/0 ... p;ct=clnk&gl=us
("他的一些赠友人的诗作和其他诗人的不同之处就在于他往往直接以友人之名入诗 * * * 忆昔洛阳董糟丘,为余天津桥南造酒楼。(《忆旧游寄谯郡元参军》)")

But this article did not explain 元参军.
(C) The following two has another (but the same) interpretation of 董糟丘.
* 李白《忆旧游寄谯郡元参军》全诗原文、注释、翻译和赏析. 可可诗词网, Sept 8, 2018
("【注释】 ①元参军: 即元演。演时为谯郡 (又称毫州,州治在今安徽毫县) 的参军,故名。 ②董糟丘: 洛阳一酒家。 ③天津桥: 在洛阳西南的洛水上")
* "第一段从'忆昔洛阳董糟丘' 到 '君留洛北愁梦思,' 追忆诗人在洛阳时的放诞生活及与元演的第一番聚散。这里最引人注目的是诗人鲜明的自我形象。从洛阳一酒家('董糟丘')说起,这个引子就是李白个性特征的表现。'为余天津桥(在洛阳西南之洛水上)南造酒楼,' 是一个何等主观的夸张!"
(iii) Of note, Pound translated the line "兴来携妓恣经过,其若杨花似雪何" as "Pleasure lasting, with courtezans [sic; both American English and British English spell courtesan], going and coming without hindrance, With the willow flakes falling like snow."   That is, 妓 as courtesans.
(f) The last of the four lines in 渭城曲 is 西出阳关无故人. It was translated as "the gates of Go." The "Go" is neither Chinese nor Japanese.

On second thought, I realize that Pound might have misread Ernest Fenollosa's HANDWRITTEN notation of "G" when it should be "Y." You see, Gates of Yō 阳关, and Yō (long vowel of "o") is Japanese pronunciation for kanji 阳.
(g) Separation on the River-Kiang  黄鹤楼送孟浩然之广陵
(i) Pound translated Line 1 "故人西辞黄鹤楼" as "Ko-jin goes west from Ko-kaku-ro,"
(ii) Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary:
* kojin 故人 【こじん】 (n): "the deceased; the departed  <故人をしのんで、記念碑が建てられた。 A monument was erected in memory of the deceased.>"  (HOWEVER, 故人 in Chinese means "老朋友": from the Web.)
(iii) The kō, kaku and rō are Chinese pronunciations of kanji 黄, 鶴 and 樓, respectively.
(iv) The poem is about 長江, I am clueless about why it was translated as River-Kiang. The Chinese pronunciations of kanji 長 and 江 are chō and kō, respectively.
(h) The City of Choan  登金陵凤凰台:


Pound translated 吴 as "Go" and 晋 as "Shin." Both are Chinese pronunciations of respective kanji.

Maybe the 长安 (Japanese pronunciation: chō-an) in Line 4 render Pound's title.

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 楼主| 发表于 1-16-2019 17:27:21 | 显示全部楼层
(III) Pound's translation:

The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter  长干行

While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead  妾发初覆额
I played about the front gate, pulling flowers.  折花门前剧
You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse,  郎骑竹马来
You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums.  绕床弄青梅
And we went on living in the village of Chokan:  同居长干里
Two small people, without dislike or suspicion.  两小无嫌猜

At fourteen I married My Lord you.  十四为君妇
I never laughed, being bashful.  羞颜未尝开
Lowering my head, I looked at the wall.  低头向暗壁
Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back.  千唤不一回

At fifteen I stopped scowling,  十五始展眉
I desired my dust to be mingled with yours  愿同尘与灰
Forever and forever, and forever.  常存抱柱信
Why should I climb the look out?  岂上望夫台

At sixteen you departed,  十六君远行
You went into far Ku-to-Yen, by the river of swirling eddies,  瞿塘滟滪堆
And you have been gone five months.  五月不可触
The monkeys make sorrowful noise overhead.  猿声天上哀
You dragged your feet when you went out.  门前迟行迹
By the gate now, the moss is grown, the different mosses,  一一生绿苔
Too deep to clear them away!  苔深不能扫
The leaves fall early this autumn, in wind.  落叶秋风早
The paired butterflies are already yellow with August  八月胡蝶来
Over the grass in the West garden,  双飞西园草
They hurt me,  感此伤妾心
I grow older,  坐愁红颜老
If you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang,  早晚下三巴
Please let me know beforehand,  预将书报家
And I will come out to meet you,  相迎不道远
As far as Cho-fu-Sa.  直至长风沙
                                                        By Rihaku.
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