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New York Times, Sept 21, 2019

发表于 9-21-2019 12:17:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 9-28-2019 11:27 编辑

There is no need to read the rest of either report.

(1) Raphael Minder, Spain Celebrates Sailor Who Assisted Magellan.
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/ ... tugal-magellan.html


(a) "GETARIA, SPAIN -- On Sept 20, 1519 the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan set out on what was to become the first circumnavigation of the world.

"The expedition helped reshape world trade and wrote Magellan's name into the history books. It remains a major point of pride for Portugal, which two years ago asked Unesco to grant world heritage status to what it called 'The Magellan route.'

"But another country has at least as strong a claim on the circumnavigation, in the name of another sailor. On the 500th anniversary of the expedition's departure, Spain -- whose king sponsored the voyage -- is seeking the reassert its role, and that of the Spanish navigator  Juan Sebastián Elcano.

"Magellan set sail from Spain with a fleet of five ships, but he himself only made it halfway around the world. After crossing the strait at the southern tip of the Americas that now bears his name,he was killed in battle in the Philippines.

"Only one of the ships completed the three-tear circumnavigation, guided home by Elcano, a Spanish officer from the Basque Country.

" 'The focus has always been on Magellan, but everybody should know that this was the project of a Spanish king, financed with Spanish money and completed by a great Spanish navigator whose role has unfortunately been forgotten,' said Carmen Iglesias, the president of Spain's Royal Academy of History.

(b) "The three-year journey also contained episodes violent conflict between the navigators and local people. Lapu-Lapu, the ruler whose troops killed Magellan, is celebrated in the Philippines as a hero of resistance to European imperialism.

(c) "Ms Iglesias acknowledged that Elcano was playing catch-up to Magellan in part because Spain itself had failed to highlight his achievements. His birthplace, the scenic coast town of Getaria, has a glossy, recently built museum, but it is dedicated to another famous son, the fashion designer Cristóbal Balenciaga [1895 – 1972]. * * * 'We have simply not done enough to honor Elcano * * *.' said Emeterio Urresti, the president of a guild for Getaria's 400 fishermen.  After a diplomatic spat, Portugal and Spain submitted a new joint application tp Unesco this year to honor the circumnavigation route. * * * On Friday [Sept 20, 2019], a celebration was held in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the port where the expedition set off exactly 500 years earlier. * * * Camilo Vázquez Bello, a former deputy director in the Spanis Education Ministry who started the commemoration project.  'For us, Magellan is very important as the starting point, but he never planned to sail around the world,' he added. 'We certainly want to highlight Elcano's pioneering contribution to globalization, as the first person who got all the way round [which is British English; American says 'around'].'   Magellan wanted to open a new route to the Spice Islands. His plan was rejected by the King of Portugal, Manuel I, so he persuaded King Charles I of Spain to finance the trip. Magellan captained a multinational crew that was chronicled by an Italian scholar, Antonio Pigafetta [c 1491 – c 1531: en.wikipedia.org].  

(d) But Elcano may have also suffered from the divisive politics of Spain. * * * 'Elcano was Basque. And this commemoration should serve to highlight the singularity of our lands,' said Haritz Alberdi Arrillaga, Gretaria's mayor, who represents EH Bildu, a Basue separatist party.  * * * The fear of Basque nationalism during a period of civil wars within Spain meant that 'Spaniards felt more comfortable putting Magellaninstead of Elcano near the top of their list of great explorers, just behind Columbus [an Italian with Spain's financial support],' Mr [Xabier] Alberdi[, a Basque historian who is the director of the naval museum in San Sebastián, about 15 miles east of Gretaria,] said.  There are very few documents about Elcano's life, but Mr Alberdi said that Getaria should at least renovate the washed-out plaque that marks the spot of his family home.

(i) Ferdinand Magellan
(Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães; section 3 Death)

Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes
(ii) Ferdinand
("It became popular in German-speaking Europe only from the 16th century, with Habsburg rule over Spain. Variants of the name include Fernán, Fernando, Hernando, and Hernán [as well as Ferdinando, from which the English name Ferdinand descends: Wiktionary] in Spanish * * * and Fernando and Fernão in Portuguese. The French forms are Ferrand, Fernand, and Fernandel, and it is Ferdinando and Fernando in Italian")

Habsburg Spain
(table: 1516–1700; section 1 History, section 1.1 Beginnings of the [Spanish] empire (1504–1521))

In 1700 Charles II died childless at 39. "His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip of Anjou [future Philip V of Spain], grandson of Louis XIV and Charles's [much older, by 23 years] half-sister Maria Theresa [who was both infanta (princess) of Spain and Portugal [until 1640 when Portugal broke away from Spain AND Louis XIV's cousin]). Disputes over the inheritance led to War of the Spanish Succession" (1701–1714).  en.wikipedia.org for "Charles II of Spain."
(iii) Strait of Magellan
(in the Spanish-language map: Estrecho de Magallanes)

Spanish-English dictionary:
* estrecho (from Latin strictus tightened, compressed, passive participle of stringere tighten, compress)
(adjective masculine): "narrow, tight"
(noun masculine): "strait"

(b) Route of Magellan. First around the World. submitted to UNESCO (which has not decided), Jan 31, 2017 (Reference 6212)/
(c) Sanlúcar de Barrameda
(d) Camilo Vázquez Bello (where Vázquez is father's surname and Bello, mother's. See en.wikipedia.org for "Spanish naming Customs")

("Vázquez (also spelled Vásquez, Vasques) * * * Vasquez means '[son] of Vasco' and Vasco comes from the pre-Roman latinized name 'Velascus' - a name of uncertain origin and meaning, but probably meaning Basque or Iberian") (brackets original)
(e) Magellan " 'never planned to sail around the world,' he [Camilo Vázquez Bello] added * * * Magellan wanted to open a new route to the Spice Islands. His plan was rejected by the King of Portugal, Manuel I [1469 – 1521; reign 1495-1521], so he persuaded King Charles I of Spain to finance the trip."
(i) Manuel (name)
(Manny as a nickname)
(ii) "Magellan wanted to open a new route to the Spice Islands"
(A) Ferdinand Magellan
(c 1480 – 1521)

Quote: "Born into a family of minor Portuguese nobility in around 1480, Magellan became a * * * naval officer and was in service of the Portuguese crown in Asia. After King Manuel I of Portugal refused to support his plan to reach India by a new route [approaching India from its EAST], by sailing around the southern end of the South American continent [via the strait he discovered and was later named after him], he was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route [the same hypithetical route, but 'western' from Spain's standpoint] to the Maluku Islands (the 'Spice Islands') ['because of the nutmeg, mace and cloves that were exclusively found there': Wikipedia; in present-day Indonesia]. Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia [in present-day Argentina]. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, they made it through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the 'peaceful sea' ['Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea" ': en.wikipedia.org for 'Pacific Ocean'] (the modern Pacific Ocean). * * * Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east (from 1505 to 1511–1512). By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history.

(B) Magellan's circumnavigation
(view map only)
(iii) Isabella I of Castile (1451 – 1504) and Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452 – 1516) were the queen and king who financed Columbus's 1492 voyage that discovered the new world. Their grandson would be King Charles I of Spain (1500 – 1558; reign 1516-1556), who was also the fifth emperor named Charles (reign 1519 – 1556) in Holy Roman Empire, as  
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
(abdicated in 1516)

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 楼主| 发表于 9-21-2019 12:17:38 | 显示全部楼层
(2) Vindu Goel, Briefs, Boxers and Warning Bells. India once had the world's fast-growing economy. But if you measure by the sales of consumer goods like men's underwear, the economy is in a big slump. (in the Business section).
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/ ... -economy-trade.html

the first four paragraphs:

"TIRUPUR, INDIA -- When Alan Greenspan ran a consulting firm and wanted to know where the economy was headed, he would often look at sales of men's underwear as a guide.

"Mr Greenspan, who later served as chairman of the Federal Reserve, believed that when timed were rough, men would stop replacing worn-out underwear, which no one could see, before cutting other purchases.

"By that measure, India is in serious slump.

" 'Sales are down 50%,' says Jeffrin Moses[, 'a garment merchant': photo caption of this report] * * * of the Tantex underwear emporium in Tirupur, the southern city where most of the country's knitwear is made.

"It's not just underwear. Car sales plunged 32 percent in August, the largest drop in two decades * * *

Note: Tiruppur
(or Tiruppur; is a major textile and knit wear hub contributing to 90% of total cotton knit wear exports from India; section 1 Etymology)
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