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Goya I

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发表于 2-18-2021 12:49:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 2-20-2021 07:51 编辑

(1) Maxwell Carter, Dreams & Nightmares. Wall Street Journal, Oct 2, 2020
("Francisco Goya y Lucientes * * * was born in Fuendetodos, Spain, in 1746. * * * Goya was in Zaragoza within months of his birth; his father and brother were gilders, exposing him to the apprentice system; he began with Luzán at 13.   A project undertaken on the basilica of El Pilar when Goya was around 9 'brought new life to art in Zaragoza,' Ms Tomlinson writes, and advanced the career of Francisco Bayeu, who also studied under Luzán. Twelve years Goya's senior, Bayeu would become his brother-in-law, advocate and 'role model'—serving, from 1763, as an assistant to the fashionable (and now justly obscure) court painter, Anton Raphael Mengs. At age 14, Goya first glimpsed the excesses of the Inquisition in the auto-da-fé of the heretic Orosia Morena. He memorialized Morena's shackled, desolate figure 50 years later.  The young Goya, who had failed twice in academic competitions before leaving for two years of study in Italy, owed his break, in part, to thrift. In 1771, he won the commission to paint the vault of the small choir in El Pilar by undercutting another contender’s quote by 40%. Goya strengthened his professional standing through marriage to Bayeu's sister, Josefa, in 1773 and by the middle of the decade was making tapestry cartoons for royal residences. As Ms Tomlinson shows, Goya's cartoons were conceived 'as part of a larger whole, resulting in meanings far more complex and engaging than any single work might convey.' The same would be true of his prints.

Note:
(a) This is a book review on
Janis Tomlinson, Goya; A portrait of the artist. Princeton University Press, Oct 20, 2020
https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691192048/goya
(b) Francisco Goya
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Goya  
(1746 – 1828; full name: Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes. Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on 30 March 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador [a photo showing his birth house])
(i) The letter y in Spanish means "and." In Spanish surnames, modern usage drops y.
(A) Spanish naming customs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_naming_customs   
("Currently in Spain, people bear * * * two surnames. The two surnames refer to each of the parental families [father's and mother's, in that order] * * * note that women do not change their name with marriage * * * Spanish naming customs include the orthographic option of conjoining the surnames with the conjunction particle y, or e before a name starting with 'I', 'Hi' or 'Y', (both meaning 'and') (eg, José Ortega y Gasset, Tomás Portillo y Blanco, or Eduardo Dato e Iradier), following an antiquated aristocratic usage.")

The clause ("y, or e before a name starting with 'I', 'Hi' or 'Y', (both meaning 'and' ") should read like this:
• e before a name starting with 'I', 'Hi' or 'Y' (the reason is simple: The e is pronounced the same as ebony in English, to distinguish in SOUND from the first syllable (all three -- I, Hi or Y -- sounding like the i in English noun image; the consonant h in Spanish is always silent) of the second (mother's) surname  
• both meaning 'and' -- ie, both y and e
•  Wiktionary says that in Spanish when meaning "and," e is derived from Latin et and y from e.
(B) Pablo Molinero Fernández, All You Wanted to Know and Never Dared to Ask About Spanish Family Names. The McKeown Group (headlined by Professor Nick McKeown), Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, last modified Apr 21, 1996
yuba.stanford.edu/~molinero/html/surname.html
("• Compound Surnames * * *
Another source of multiple-word surnames is the use of prepositions and conjunctions. If your surname is the name of a common thing, the name of a place, a first name, or simply you are old fashioned, then you add a de (of), which is similar to the German von or the Dutch van.

eg Bosque [forest] becomes del Bosque, Peña [rock] is de la Peña, Viña [vine] is de la Viña, ...

Until the 60's the Spanish census and other official registers used the and conjunction (y) to separate the first and second surnames. This was useful when there were compound surnames and one can not tell where does the second surname begin. Nowadays a slash (-) is used to group the members of a compound surname.

eg this example has all the attributes described before.

Alejandro        Rodríguez de la Peña        y        de Ybarra
Chistian                        First                        Second
Name                        Surname                Surname

Compound First Names
Well, then you must consider that in most region, specially in Latin America, people like to give their children several first (Christian) names, usually two or three, so that they are protected by the greatest number of Saints. Traditionally one of the names had to be the Saint of the Birthday.  

This specially true for women. Up to my generation, most women have the name María. This is why most women use the other first name or a nickname. Usually the second name is abstract because it specifies the name of a Madonna, like Esperanza [hope], Concepción [conception], Dolores [pain], Encarnación [incarnation]

Mixed First Names
Well, in order to maximize the divine protection some people have both a male and a female name. The first name will tell you the sex of the person.

So if you meet someone that is called José María, don't call him María because he is male. The same way, if you know someone called María José, don't call her José, because she will become angry with you. Usually only the names of María and José are borrowed from the opposite sex."
* * *
the -ez suffix
It is suprising the number of Spanish surnames end in ez. This is because it means 'son of,' like the suffix -son and -sen in many German and Scandinavian languages. In Portuguese the -ez becomes a -es.

eg Fernández is the son of Fernando [Ferdinan]

Martínez is the son of Martín [Martin]

Rodríguez is the son of Rodrigo [Rodrico]

Notice that someone called Pérez does not have to be the son of Pere [Pedro = Peter], it only means that one of her/his antecesors happened to be called Pedro (who probably was a knight in the mediaval ages)
* * *
My complete name is Pablo Molinero Fernández, Molinero is my father's first surname and Fernández is my mother's first surname.")  (brackets original).


There are English misspellings in (B), which I did not correct.

"Nowadays a slash (-) is used to group the members of a compound surname."  It is not a slash (/), but a hyphen (maybe the author was confused about slash and dash; a dash, used to explain a thing positioned right before, looks longer than a hyphen; but Americnas do not distinguish between a hyphen and a dash). The truth is, Spanish names, be they from Latin America or Spain, often do not have a hyphen between the first and second surnames, but leave a space between the two.

Rodrico is more common found in English as Roderick.

Pere is not a nickname of Pedro (in Spanish, that is). Pere is the Catalan version of Pedro (Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia).
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pere

Spanish -English dictionary:
* dolor (noun masculine; plural dolores; from Latin noun masculine of the same spelling with the same meaning): "1: pain, 2: sorrow"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dolor
* Ybarra (proper name; etymology: "Originally an alternative spelling of [Basque surname] Ibarra, from Basque ibar hill): "a surname"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Ybarra


(c)
(i) Fuendetodos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuendetodos  
("located about 44 kilometers south-east of Zaragoza * * * The town was originally called Fuentedetodos meaning 'source of all' ")

Fuentedetodos combines three Spanish words: fuente de todos.

Spanish-English dictionary:
* fuente (noun feminine; from Latin fontem, singular accusative of [noun masculine] fons [spring/fountain, source]): "1 spring/fountain, 2: source"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fuente
   ^ Fuente is a Spanish surname, meaning a person living by a spring.
* todo (pronoun): 1.1: everything, 1.2: (todos) all"
https://www.lexico.com/es-en/traducir/todo
   ^ Wiktionary says this Spanish word came from Latin adjective masculie tōtus whole, all.
(ii) Zaragoza
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaragoza  
(section 1 Etymology)

(d) "At age 14, Goya first glimpsed the excesses of the Inquisition in the auto-da-fé of the heretic Orosia Morena. He memorialized Morena's shackled, desolate figure 50 years later."
(i) auto-da-fé
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-da-fé

Portuguese-English dictionary:
* auto (noun masculine; from Latin actus, perfect passive participle of agō I make, I do): "a public deed or ceremony"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/auto#Portuguese
* fé (noun feminine; from Latin [noun feminine] fidēs [faith]): "faith"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fé
   ^ The same Wiktionary page remarks that in Spanish, "fé" is the obsolete form of fe, of the same meaning.
   ^ Santa Fe, New Mexico
   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Fe,_New_Mexico   
   (section 1 Etymology)
(ii) Orosia Morena
(A) For Orosia, see Eurosia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurosia
("or Orosia")  
Saint Eurosia is the English; Santa Orosia, Spanish.
(B) from Dictionary of American Family Names, published by Oxford University Press:
• Goya: "Basque: variant of Goia, a topographic name from Basque goi upper part + the definite article -a. Galician: habitational name from Goya in Lugo province, Galicia."
• Morena: "Spanish: shortened form of De la Morena, which either refers to the Sierra Morena, or is a matronymic from a feminine form of a nickname from moreno brown. Compare [another Spanish surname] Moreno."

Francisco de Goya (which is Spanish shorthand; English full name: Francisco Goya) is of Basque descent.

Sierra Morena
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Morena  
(map; "Its name, roughly meaning 'dark range', is likely derived from the dark color of some of the rocks and vegetation of the ranges that make up the mountainous system")

-English dictionary:
* moreno (noun or adjective masculine; from [proper noun msculine] moro [a Moor] + [suffix] -eno)
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/moreno#Spanish
(iii) Goya's print about Orosia Morena.
(A) Since she went on talking, they muzzled her and beat her in the face. I saw her, Orosia Moreno, in Zaragoza. Punished because she knew how to make mice. 1814 - 1823. Museo del Prado.
https://www.museodelprado.es/en/ ... f-86ca-f06443b19246

One can manipulate the icon to the right of the print.

Museo del Prado
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museo_del_Prado  
(1819- ; "The prado ('meadow') that was where the museum now stands gave its name to the area * * * and to the museum itself upon nationalisation [of the museum, not meadow, from the royal family]")
(B) By clicking "ES" in the upper right corner of the Prado Museum Web page at (d)(iii)(A), which displayed English title, one has the Spanish title:
Le pusieron mordaza por que hablaba. Y le dieron palos en la cara. Yo la bi en Zaragoza à Orosia Moreno Por que sabia hacer Ratones.

To make mice is meaningless in English. I google with "make mice" and all returns are this print. But googling with "hacer Ratones" and you will see Spaniads really make stuffed mice as decorations.

Spanish-English dictionary:
* ratón (noun masculine, from [noun feminine] rata [rat] + [suffix] -ón [for very few cases, indicates small size': Wiktionary]): "mouse"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ratón


(e) I no longer have the newspaper with me, that carried the book review. My impression is the nightmares in the review title had something to do with

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th ... n_Produces_Monsters
Read the caption of the print, about Location.

The Met, the exhibitor, has its own copy of hte print.
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/338473


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 楼主| 发表于 2-18-2021 12:59:16 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 choi 于 2-18-2021 14:55 编辑

auto-da-fé
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-da-fé
has an astonishing painting, which I did further research and will discuss here.

(a) Saint Dominic presiding over an Auto-da-fe. 1493 - 1499. Museo del Prado.
https://www.museodelprado.es/en/ ... b-b2e8-001728590173
("On a portable rostrum, Saint Dominic and six other judges preside over the auto-da-fe in which some Albigensian heretics are being judged, representing a well-known episode in his biography. Beside him, another figure holds the banner with the floral cross, an attribute of Saint Dominic. Some of the accused are already being burned, while two others, in the foreground, await their turn, wearing the 'sanbenito' [a cloak worn by those condemned by the Inquisition] and cuirass with a sign reading: 'condemned heretic.' In the background, still others await the judgment of Saint Dominic. The arrangement of the stage and figures illustrates Berruguete's modernity with regard to new compositional trends, and this painting reveals his capacity for pictorial narration. The scene constitutes a magnificent chronicle of Castile at the time of the Catholic Monarchs. The characters dressed in fifteenth-century style, are realistic and believable almost to the point of anecdote, for example, the person sleeping below the saint. This work comes from the sacristy of the convent of Santo Tomás in Ávila")  (brackets original).
(i)
(A) Again, manipulate the icon to the right of the painting.
(B) Saint Dominic
(1170 (Spain) – 1221 (a convent in Italy) )
(C) The painter was Pedro Berruguete
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Berruguete
(c 1450 – 1504; Spanish)
(ii) For Albigensian, see Catharism
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharism  
("a Christian * * * movement between the 12th and 14th centuries which thrived in Southern Europe * * * Followers were described as Cathars and referred to themselves as Good Christians, and are now mainly remembered for a prolonged period of persecution by the Catholic Church, which did not recognise their unorthodox Christianity. * * * The adherents were sometimes referred to as Albigensians, after the city Albi in southern France where the movement first took hold")

Not to be confused with English noun catharsis (from Ancient Greek of the same spelling except starting with k, not c, and meaning the same (cleansing).

However, both catharsis (accent on the second syllable) and Catharism (accent in the first syllable) ultimately share the same Ancient Greek root: adjective masculine katharós pure, clean).
(iii)
(A) rostrum (synonym: podium)
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictio ... ion/english/rostrum

You can click the illustration to enlarge.
(B) But see podium (n; etymology): "1.1: North American  a lectern"
https://www.lexico.com/definition/podium
(iv) "Some of the accused are already being burned"

I could not see where in the painting. But see (b).
(v) "wearing the 'sanbenito' [a cloak worn by those condemned by the Inquisition] and cuirass with a sign reading: 'condemned heretic.' "
(A) In the painting, One can see "condemned heretic" on the front of a whaite drape.

cuirass
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuirass

cuirass (n): "historical  a piece of armour consisting of breastplate and backplate fastened together"
https://www.lexico.com/definition/cuirass

I look at the en.wiki[edia.org for sanbenito and it looks the same as what the Prado Museum describes as cuirass.


(b) Karina Galperín, The passion according to Berruguete: painting the Auto-da-fé and the establishment of the inquisition in early modern Spain. Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies 14: 315, 317 (2013)
https://www.utdt.edu/Upload/_148485022064196900.pdf

two consecutive paragraphs:

"Dominicans in the Inquisition is further emphasized; the Saint is resting his hand on the shoulder of a man, possibly the prosecutor, who holds a banner topped with the Dominican fleur-de-lis (Caballero Escamilla, 'Los gestos' 7). At the far left, overlooking the inquisitorial platform (cadalso), we get a glimpse of another platform (tablado) crowded with more victims and inquisitorial officers. In the middle level of the painting, a pardoned Raimundo de Corsi stands at the foot of a staircase leading up toward the Saint, while a Dominican friar next to him points upward. According to legend, the Albigensian youth was set free by Domingo de Guzmán. Unique among the convicts on the platform, he seems to stand as a sign of the converted soul's upward movement from the depths of heresy to the heights of faith.

"The lower half stands in stark opposition with the rest. Immediately perceptible to the eye, its somber tints and lack of embellishment contrast with the chromatic richness of the upper inquisitorial platform. In the sordid realm of punishment below, we find the battery of officers in charge of carrying out the sentences, the confessor, the executioner and the crowd of spectators under the platform. Singled out by their luminous nudity, two victims burn at the stake. Two others, herded toward the scaffold, await their turn to die.

Note:
(i) Los Geltos is the short-hand title of a 2009 academic article penned by Sonia Caballero Escamilla. The 7 referred to page 7 of that article.
(ii) "According to legend, the Albigensian youth was set free by Domingo de Guzmán."
(A) "Raimundo de Corsi was the name of the youth.
(B) And Domingo de Guzmán? That is the very Dominic.
(iii)
(A) Dominic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominic
("is a name common among Roman Catholics and other Latin-Romans as a boys name. Originally from the late Roman-Italic name 'Dominicus,' its translation means 'Lordly,' 'Belonging to God' or 'of the Master.' Variations include: Dominicus (Latin rendition) * * * Domenico (Italian) * * * Domingo (Spanish) * * *")
(B) Latin-English dictionary:
* dominicus (adjective masculine; from [noun masculine] dominus lord, master +‎ [suffix] -icus of, pertaining to, belonging to, connected with): "of or belonging to a lord or master"https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dominicus
(C) Saint Dominic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Dominic  
(Spanish: Santo Domingo; often called Dominic de Guzmán; "The travel narrative of Pero Tafur, written circa 1439 (about a pilgrimage to Dominic's tomb in Italy), states that Dominic's father belonged to the family de Guzmán")

Click de Guzmán, and you will see it was the last name of a series of dukes in Spain.  Dictionary of American Families commented that the etiology and meaning of Guzman was unknown.
(D) Santo Domingo
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santo_Domingo  
(meaning 'Saint Dominic'), once known as Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city of the Dominican Republic")
(iv) "Singled out by their luminous nudity, two victims burn at the stake."

I did not see these two as burned, because their loin cloth was still on and looks perfect. But the pile of debris below them gives the hint of burn.
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