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Goya II

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发表于 2-20-2021 14:08:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
(2) This posting focuses on Goya's albums.

On the side, Goya did artworks, bound them into eight volumes. The cover of the volumes had no name, but inside (each volume) he numbered the artworks consecutively (starting from Album B; not Album A, that is) and wrote each artwork a short description (in Spanish) as the title. After his death, the 8 volumes were listed chronologically (except Album C; see (a) ) as A to H. These volumes were disassembled, and artworks sold piece by piece (again, except Album C). A lot came into the hand of Prado Museum, which reassembled them into original volumes.

(a) Sketch Albums. InfoGoya '96 (by University of Zaragoza and Institución Fernando el Católico to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Goya's birth in 1996)
http://goya.unizar.es/InfoGoya/Work/Albumes.html

(b) Next I will return to my previous posting (titled Goya I), whose note (d)(iii)(A) was about Orosia Morena.

This is Album C No 87 (the number on the print -- at the right upper quadrant).

Since she went on talking, they muzzled her and beat her in the face. I saw her, Orosia Moreno, in Zaragoza. Punished because she knew how to make mice. 1814 - 1823. Museo del Prado.
https://www.museodelprado.es/en/ ... f-86ca-f06443b19246
("Goya's Album C exemplifies the complexity of his work. Made during the Peninsular War and the posterior repression under the reign of Ferdinand VII, it addresses subjects linked to many facets of that period. * * * The subjects in Album C range from aspects of daily life, including numerous beggars, to dream visions of the world of night. One especially large group consists of drawings with victims of the Inquisition or of cruelty in prisons, and this recently led Juliet Wilson-Bareau to call it the Inquisition Album, although as we already stated, this is not the only subject addressed therein. In fact, another notable group of images criticizes the habits of monastic orders and the life of friars defrocked by the French authorities’ disentailment decrees.   Of Goya's albums, this is the one with the most works, as well as the only one to have survived almost intact. It was never taken apart, and was not subjected to consecutive sales. Hence, it was almost complete when it arrived at the Museo del Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad. Of 126 known drawings, 120 are at the Museo del Prado. One is at the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid (C 56), one at the British Museum in London (C 88), and two at the Hispanic Society of America in New York (C 71 and C 128). Finally, two others are in a private collection in that city (C 11 and C 78) (Text drawn from Matilla, JM: Álbum C 91, 'Muchos an acabado asi. Álbum C 101, No se puede mirar,' en Goya en tiempos de guerra, Museo del Prado, 2008, p 393)" )
(i) This print is Album C No 87. The number can be seen on the print.
(ii) Years 1814 - 1823 were spent on creation of the entire Album C, not this particular print.
(iii) Juliet Wilson-Bareau
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliet_Wilson–Bareau  
(1935- ; British)
(iv) There is no en.wikipedia.org page for Museo de la Trinidad.

The Museo de la Trinidad in the Prado. July 19 - Sept 19, 2004 (exhibition)
https://www.museodelprado.es/en/ ... e-981d-7dfff7ef2302
("After the works formerly in the Spanish royal collections, the most important group within the collection of the Museo del Prado comprises the paintings formerly in the Museo de la Trinidad. Officially open to the public in 1838, the Trinidad closed permanently in 1872, at which point its holdings were combined with those of the Prado. * * * Located in the [C]alle [de] Atocha in Madrid, the Museo de la Trinidad was installed in the monastery of the Trinidad Calzada (hence its name). The collections came from monasteries and convents closed down by the laws of Mendizábal between 1835 and 1837. In addition, further paintings arrived in 1838 from the collection of the Infante Sebastián Gabriel, confiscated from him in 1835 as a reprisal for his Carlist sympathies. From 1856, the Museum also started to acquired paintings somewhat randomly, and works by Luis de Morales, El Greco, Alessandro Allori as well as an important group by Goya were added to the collection. * * *
[written by] Miguel Zugaza, Director of the Museo Nacional del Prado. Extract from the catalogue of the exhibition")
(A) Calle de Atocha
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calle_de_Atocha
(a street)
(B) Atocha (Madrid)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atocha_(Madrid)
(C) "Spanish Wikipedia [es.wikipedia.org for the page of 'Virgen de Atocha' (Virgin of Atocha)] sees it [Atocha] as the corrupted Spanish pronunciation of the Greek Theotoca, ie Mother of God": from the Web.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgen_de_Atocha

Theotoca is not found in English dictionary, but Theotokos is, as a title of Mary as Christ's mother.

English dictionary:
* Christotokos (n: Christ + Ancient Greek -tokos bearing)
https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/christotokos
(D) Spanish-English dictionary:
* calle (noun feminine; from Latin [noun masculine or feminine] callis [path]): "street"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calle

(v) Convento de la Trinidad Calzada (a Spanish, not English, name), Madrid, was demolished in 1897.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convento_de_la_Trinidad_Calzada_(Madrid)
("La orden Trinitaria fue fundada por Juan de Mata en el año 1198")
(A) Google Translate: The Trinitarian order was founded by Juan de Mata in 1198
(B) There is (present tense) Convento de la Trinidad Calzada. See
Jeannine Baticle, Zurbarán. The Met, Sept 22-Dec 13, 1987 (exhibition catalog), at page 119
https://books.google.com/books?i ... zada%22&f=false

First 3 1/4 paragraphs:

"[sectional heading] THE MONASTERY OF THE TRINIDAD CALZADA, SEVILLE[;]

"Centuries of fighting between the Moslem and the Christian worlds resulted in an increasing number of captives taken on both sides. At the end of the twelfth century, in the family chapel of Maurice de Sully, Archbishop of Paris, a Provençal monk, had a vision while celebrating his first mass. As he elevated the Host, he saw an angel, dressed in white and standing above the altar, with his hands crossed above the heads of two [live] captives, a Moor and a Christian. The revelation led to the foundation, in 1198, of an order for the exchange and redemption of captives, the Order of the Most Holy Trinity [also known as Trinitarian Order]. Jean de Matha, the founder of what soon became a flourishing order, died in Rome in 1212.

"The Trinitarians thus played a role of considerable importance in Spain because of centuries-old effort to eradicate the Moorish presence. The Mercedarian Order, founded in the thirteenth century with a similar mission, also became firmly established on the Iberian peninsula.

"The Monastery [or Convent] of the Trinidad Calzada was situated outside the city walls of Seville * * *"

(C) There are also several monasteries/ convents "de la Merced Calzada" in Spain.

Spanish-English dictionary:
* merced (noun feminine; from Latin [noun feminine] mercēs [payment, wage], froom [noun feminine] merx merchandise): "mercy"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/merced
* calzada
(noun feminine; ultimately from Latin [noun feminine] calx limestone): "[paved] road  
(adjective feminine of calzado [which is defined as '(of religions) calced'] "
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calzada
(vi) I spent hours studying which definition fitted.
(A) Odile Delenda, Francisco de Zurbarán; The founding of the Order of Mercy. Paris: Galerie Eric Coatalem, 2009, at page 12 (English and Spanish translations : Mary Jo Landeira Brisson)
https://www.coatalem.com/images/catalogues/ZURBARAN.pdf
("The Convent of Mercy in Seville[which is sectional heading:] After the discovery of America and throughout the 16th century, Seville developed according to THE new social, urban and institutional constraints. Thanks to the trading monopoly with the West Indies thE city became the most important economic center in Spain:  * * * Religious orders and their convents developed and Grew depending on their needs to better adapt to the renewed liturgy imposed by theologians after the Council of Trent *154501563). The Order of Mercy, one fo the most remarkable institutions in the religious life of Golden Age Spain, could no longer remain in the primitive buildings dating from the Middle Ages and now too confining despite the recent separation into two branches. Much as in many of the religious orders at the end of the 16th century or beginning of the 17th, a part of the Mercedarian Fathers decided in fact, under Carmelite influence, to reform in 1603 and to create a distinct order from the 'Merced Calzada' (Calced Mercy). This new order took the name of 'Merced Descalza' (Discalced Mercy) in 1621 and was approved by Pope Innocent X in 1648. However, the members of the 'Merced Calzada' in Seville, from the 'Convento Casa Grande de Merced Calzada' continued to grow and were in need of a larger building. Thus the Calced Mercedarians had a new site erected to house their convent in Seville at the beginning of the 17th century")
(B) Catholic dictionary (English):

calced: "Wearing shoes or sandals. Distinguished from the discalced among the men and women religious who do not wear shoes as a form of austerity. Customs differ among religious institutes, notably the Carmelites, who have two main branches of the order, one calced and the other discalced. (Etym. Latin noun masculine] calceus, shoe) "
https://www.catholicculture.org/ ... /index.cfm?id=32268
(C) English dictionary:
* calced
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/calced  
(pronunciation)
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 楼主| 发表于 2-20-2021 14:11:38 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 choi 于 2-22-2021 13:35 编辑

In Album C, Nos 85-114 (inclusive) were about Spanish Inquisition.  

Album C No 89:
English title: For speaking in a different way  
Spanish title: Por mober la lengua de otro modo
https://www.museodelprado.es/en/ ... 0-37cb-fb5df079933d

Quote:

"Capricho 23, titled Those Specks of Dust, stands as a forerunner to the present drawing, in which the composition’s three essential elements have already been determined: the condemned man in the foreground, his Judge on the rostrum in the background and the spectators, presented as a crowd. This same compositional scheme was also employed in The Auto da Fe of the Inqusition [sic] (Madrid, Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando), a painting on a panel that Goya made around 1815-1816 as one of four oils on matters relating to Spanish society's irrational behavior. The other three are Madhouse, Bullfight and Procession of Flagellants.

"Like the other drawings in Album C related to this subject, this one makes the condemned figure the absolute protagonist. The other elements are purely secondary and are used to establish the drawing’s context and clarify its meaning. As in the other drawings, that meaning is further underlined by an emphatic, if rather ambiguous, title. The main figure has been condemned 'for moving his tongue in a different way,' which may mean praying in another language -possibly Hebrew- or perhaps expressing ideas contrary to official doctrine. As is frequent in this graphic series, Goya uses titles to link a group of images. Here, for example, the series begins with a woman condemned for having been born somewhere else, and continues with people killed for different reasons linked to heterodoxy -either religious or of thought. In order to make the composition more meaningful, Goya places a series of inscriptions beneath the X of the penitent’s scapular as a symbolic allusion to the motive of his suffering. In that same sense, the flames on his conical hat, or coroza, reflect the maximum sentence. Llorente does not mention such explanations on penitents' scapulars; he refers only to the presence of symbols, so such inscriptions must have been added to the scapulars that were hung in churches as public reminders of the sinners' transgressions, where they would have provided information on the identity of the guilty party and the reasons for his or her condemnation. This can actually be seen on 18th-century garments at Tui Cathedral in Pontevedra. Here, Goya seems to be alluding to the need to explain the reasons for such excessively harsh punishment. Moreover, the fact that the protagonist's face is hidden and the viewer is presented, instead, with an image of the back of his scapular points not so much to individual guilt as to the generic 'reason' for his sentence (Text drawn from Matilla, JM: 'Por mover la lengua de otro modo,' in Matilla, JM, Mena Marqués, M. B. (dir.), Goya: Luces y Sombras, Barcelona: Fundación 'la Caixa,' Barcelona: Obra Social 'la Caixa' Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, p 252, no 71)" )

(a) Many museums in the world has the following print, but this one analyzes it.

Los Caprichos. Plate 23. Aquellos polbos (Those specks of dust). Museum of New Zealand, undated
https://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/42898
("This image is Plate 23, one of two from Los caprichos (the other is No hubo remedio/ There was no remedy, plate 24), that deal directly with the Inquisition. In this work, Goya boldly attacks the arbitrary justice of the Inquisition by depicting the plight of a known personality of the day. The prisoner on trial here is Perico, a disabled woman who was arrested for selling love potions. She appears in front of a mob of officials robed in the typical penitential uniform with its tall pointed hat called the coroza or cap of infamy. She sits hunched over, as if condemned [to death] in advance. It appears as if her sentence is being read to her. Goya remarked: 'Badly done! To treat an honorable woman in this way, a woman who for nothing served everyone so well and so usefully. Badly done!'  Although the Inquisition in Goya's time was considerably less brutal and arbitary [sic] than it had been in the 17th or early 18th centuries, according to Robert Hughes 'it remained a detestable institution * * * ' ")

(b) For "The Auto da Fe of the Inqusition (Madrid, Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando)," see
The Inquisition Tribunal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Inquisition_Tribunal
(table: Location: Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid)

Spanish-English dictionary:
* real (adjective; from Latin [adjective] rēgālis [royal]): "royal"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/real#Spanish
(Another definition of Spanish adjective real (derived from Latin adjective reālis real) is real)

(c) Tim Smith-Laing, 'For Goya, the Normal, the Terrible, and the Fantastical Existed Cheek by Jowl.' London: Apollo Magazine, Feb 1, 2020
https://www.apollo-magazine.com/goya-drawings-prado-review/

first 2 pages:

"When the [Scottish] art historian Sir William Stirling-Maxwell travelled to Madrid in 1849, he made sure to visit the house of Javier Goya y Bayeu. Then 'a civil old man of perhaps 60,' Javier was the custodian of his celebrated father's drawings, bound into 'three great books.' Assembled posthumously, the three volumes contained some images familiar to Stirling-Maxwell – including 'the originals of many of the engraved Caprichos' – but a great many more that he, along with most of Goya's admirers, had never seen. A lifetime's worth of studies and preparatory sketches accompanied by some 550 worked-up drawings from Goya's 'private albums,' they were a trove like no other. Stirling-Maxwell explored only one of the books, took detailed notes on two grotesque images of a repressive constable's fate at the hands of his victims, and remarked, with some relish, on Goya's taste for drawing 'any dirty subject' he saw.

"Stirling-Maxwell must have been aware that his opportunity to sit down and leaf through the albums was a rare privilege, but he cannot have known just how rare. Not long after his visit, in the wake of Javier's death in 1854, the three books were broken up and sold to aficionados across the Continent. While the Prado's own holdings remain unparalleled, with 448 drawings entering the museum's collection before the turn of the 20th century, many disappeared into private collections. Reassembled as new albums or sold on as individual drawings, they have remained dispersed ever since. Goya's only true 'sketchbook,' the 'Italian Notebook,' would not come to light again until 1993; one set of 38 drawings, believed to have been destroyed during the fall of Berlin in 1945, resurfaced, finally, in 1996 at the Hermitage.
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