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How to Deter China from Invading Taiwan (Militarily) (II)

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发表于 9-18-2021 12:07:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
I have more time to research on the weapons described in the essay.
(1) Naval Strike Missile
(a) Naval Strike Missile. Raytheon, undated
https://www.raytheonmissilesandd ... aval-strike-missile  
("Raytheon Missiles & Defense has teamed with the Norwegian defense company Kongsberg Defence Aerospace to bring the fifth-generation missile stateside")

Technology and most assembly are in Kongsberg, Norway.
(b) I found a Web page from Kongsberg that says, "The missile is completely passive, has proven its excellent sea-skimming capabilities and with its advanced terminal manoeuvres, it will survive the enemy air defences. The Autonomous Target Recognition (ATR) of the seeker ensures that the correct target is detected, recognized and hit, at sea or on land."
NSM™ NAVAL STRIKE MISSILE (NSM); NSM provides superior operational performance and high survivability against all enemy soft and hard kill defence systems. Kongsberg, undated
https://www.kongsberg.com/kda/pr ... strike-missile-nsm/
(i) missile guidance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missile_guidance
(section 3        GOT [go-onto-target] systems: section 3.1 Remote control guidance + section 3.2 Homing guidance (section 3.2.2 Radar homing 3.2.2.1 Active homing, section 3.2.2.2 Semi-active homing, section 3.2.3 Passive homing), section 4 GOLIS [go-onto-location-in-space] systems)

In the active homing, the missile head has a radar to detect target (with bounced back electromagnetic radiation); in semiactive homing, radar is provided by a nearby, say, drone -- presence of the radar makes a missile relying on both either active or semiactive susceptible to detection. A missile with passive homing has an infrared sensor (at the final stage, after relying on, usually, GOLIS system).   
(ii) David B Larter, It's official: The US Navy Has a New Ship Killer Missile. Defense News, June 1, 2018
https://nationalinterest.org/blo ... ike-missiles-184679
(" * * * destined for the littoral combat ship and likely the service's future frigate [to date, US Navy has no plan for any other ship or submarine yet] as well. The NSM, which was a joint submission between Kongsberg and Raytheon, was widely expected to win the competition after its main competitors — Boeing’s extended range Harpoon and Lockheed Martin’s Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile — dropped from contention. Both companies felt the competition was skewed towards the Raytheon/Kongsberg offering, Defense News reported last May [by Christopher P Cavas on May 24, 2017]")
(iii) comparison with Harpoon (which US sold several batches to Taiwan throug decades)
(A) Charlie Gao, Why the Harpoon Anti-Ship Missile’s Days are Numbered; Could the Naval Strike Missile replace it?  National Interest, Mar 27, 2021 (blog)https://nationalinterest.org/blo ... n-anti-ship-missile’s-days-are-numbered-181235
https://nationalinterest.org/blo ... are-numbered-181235
("But the Harpoon is still being purchased and upgraded. The new Harpoon Block II+ performed well at RIMPAC 2018 and is set to be procured into the near future. * * * First of all, the NSM is smaller and lighter than the Harpoon. The Harpoon weighs in at almost 700kg for its surface-launched variant. The NSM is only 407 kg.  These weight difference also applies to the warheads; the Harpoon has a massive 224kg warhead to the NSM’s 100kg. However, the NSM is designed to have a programmable fuze that can select the best mode of detonation per target, as opposed to the Harpoon that simply uses a time-delayed contact fuze. * * * Moving onto the guidance, the NSM uses a high-resolution infrared seeker to home in on specific portions of the ship. Guidance before the terminal stage is accomplished with inertial guidance, so the missile is not reliant on GPS and other technologies.  Conversely, the Harpoon has always had inertial guidance, but recent variants have added on GPS capability to allow the missile to navigate more accurately. Terminal guidance is provided with an active radar seeker that’s harder to jam and spoof, but less precise than an IR seeker.  The NSM though has some significant advantages that the Harpoon does not. The missile is said to be low observable [see (B) next], which combined with the completely passive infrared terminal mode may reduce the chances for an enemy ship to detect and react to the missile
• fuse
(noun 1; First Known Use 1848): "an electrical safety device consisting of or including a wire or strip of fusible metal that melts and interrupts the circuit when the current exceeds a particular amperage"
(noun 2; less commonly fuze; First Known Use in "1:"  1644):
"1: a continuous train of a combustible substance enclosed in a cord or cable for setting off an explosive charge by transmitting fire to it;
2: a mechanical or electrical detonating device for setting off the bursting charge of a projectile, bomb, or torpedo"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fuse
• For time-delayed contact fuze, see
Ordnance fuze time delay mechanism
https://patents.justia.com/patent/4013013
(table at the bottom: Patent number: 4013013, Filed: Nov 12, 1975, Date of Patent: Mar 22, 1977, Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force (Washington, DC), Inventor: Dale N Davis [he worked for Air Force] (Freeport, FL) )

the first four consecutive paragraphs:

"It becomes necessary in many instances to destroy or disarm thin skinned material targets such as aircraft or the like which are capable of surviving the explosive force of most conventional weapons. There are two basis elements which must be considered in defeating such a target. First, it is necessary for the housing of the projectile to be of sufficient strength to pierce the protective shield of the target and second, the explosive action of the projectile must be capable of destroying the components located behind the skin of the target after such perforation. Merely punching a hole in the skin, in many instances, does not constitute a defeat or disablement of the aircraft.

"Antiaircraft missiles or projectiles will generally detonate upon impact with the target such as an airplane, generally causing damage to the external configuration of the aircraft without doing substantial damage to the interior thereof. It is therefore desirable to incorporate in anti aircraft projectiles and the like a delay which will permit the missile to penetrate the target before the main explosive charge is detonated thereby effecting maximum damage to the target.

"The fuze is the mechanism utilized for igniting or detonating the bursting charge of such a projectile and performs this function upon impact of the projectile with any substantially rigid object, or in the case of a delay action fuze, at a predetermined time thereafter. * * *

"The desired delay time which is necessary in the anti aircraft missiles or projectiles as set forth hereinabove is in the order of 0.25 milliseconds.

(B) Sebastien Roblin, Navy Littoral Combat Ships Are Getting Norwegian Naval Strike Missiles. National Interest, May 1, 2021 (blog)
https://nationalinterest.org/blo ... are-numbered-181235

quote:

"A Naval Strike Missile measures about 4 meters long and weighs 880 pounds, including a 276-pound fragmentation warhead. That makes it a lightweight anti-ship missiles compared to the 488-lb warhead on the venerable Harpoon, or the 1,000-pound warhead on the sophisticated LRASM stealth cruise missile. However, lighter weapons are an easier fit for smaller ships than big missiles that require large vertical launch systems and lack powerful sensors that can detect very distant targets anyway.

"At $2.2 million per missile, the NSM costs over 57 percent more than a $1.4 million Harpoon Block II missile but has a proportionately greater range of 115 miles. Furthermore, the NSM's sensors and stealth characteristics theoretically make it more likely to hit a designated target.

"Like the Harpoon, the NSM uses a solid-fuel rocket booster to leap off a ship-based launcher, then discards the booster and switches to a turbojet engine slung on its back as it skims low over the water to minimize radar detection range at speeds between 537 and 690 miles per hour [subsonic: that is all you have to know].  To avoid the formidable air defense umbrella protecting modern warships, NSMs are shaped to have a reduced radar cross-section, and are built out of non-reflective composite materials. Furthermore, in their terminal approach phase the missiles perform randomized banking maneuvers to evade the target's close defense weapons.

• AGM-158C LRASM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGM-158C_LRASM  
(Long Range Anti-Ship Missile; table: In service 2018 to present, Designer DARPA, Manufacturer Lockheed Martin, Maximum speed  High-subsonic, Launch platform Aircraft or Surface vessels: via Mark 41 Vertical Launching System)
• "a proportionately greater range of 115 miles"

But see Harpoon (missile)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpoon_(missile)
Table: Operational range   67 nautical miles or greater, ship-launched Harpoon Block II; 150 nmi (280 km), Block IIER [extended range])
• "randomized banking"

For bank, see flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_dynamics_(fixed-wing_aircraft)
("The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed-wing aircraft, which usually 'banks' to change the horizontal direction of flight")



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 楼主| 发表于 9-18-2021 12:08:28 | 显示全部楼层
2) Now I will turn to sea mine.

陳宗逸, 台軍水雷作戰 只為把自己鎖在島內?. 香港01, Feb 1.2021,
https://www.hk01.com/台灣新聞/581858/台軍水雷作戰-只為把自己鎖在島內

Note:
(a) "近日,台灣海軍在左營軍港進行春節期間加強戰備操演"

游凱翔, 國造萬象水雷罕見亮相 海軍操演秀制海戰力. 中央社, Jan 27, 2021 (last updated Jan 28, 2021)
https://www.cna.com.tw/news/aipl/202101270157.aspx
("海軍今天在高雄左營軍港出動布雷艇、獵雷艦演練,更罕見將「國雷國造」的萬象水雷對外展示,展現出布雷制海的強大戰力。  國防部今天上午在高雄左營軍港舉行「國軍民國110年春節加強戰備」演練 * * * 特別的是,海軍也罕見將國家中山科學研究院研製的國軍4種型號水雷對外陳展,分別是「萬象一型水雷」及「萬象二型水雷」,而型號數字越大則越新;其中萬象一型又分錐形沉底雷、柱形沉底雷;萬象二型又分繫留雷、沉底雷;不過,據傳已成功研製的萬象三型水雷則未展出。  * * * 萬象二型繫留雷的感炸方式為「聲、磁、壓感應」、布放深度20公尺至300公尺,布放方式為艦布,水雷全重1110公斤、裝藥量170公斤;萬象二型沉底雷的感炸方式與繫留雷相同,差異在布放深度10至250公尺,布放方式可艦布、空投與潛布,水雷全重615公斤、裝藥量400公斤")

(b) Indeed, just a month before, President Tsai showed of a peak of 萬象二型 沉底雷 in her Facebook.

陳政錄/綜合報導, 這就是水雷!蔡英文超直白開箱「快速布雷艇」 反登陸神器曝光. ETtoday, Dec 16, 2020 (in print day)
https://www.ettoday.net/news/20201216/1877454.htm
("總統蔡英文15日前往宜蘭,見證國艦國造進展,並在臉書粉專上曝光大量開箱內容。其中,國軍自2002年起現役的萬象二型水雷「高清無碼照」罕見曝光 * * * 蔡英文15日前往宜蘭龍德造船,親自為首 [sic; sme sources in Taiwan called it '沱江級巡邏艦二號艦'] 艘「航母殺手」沱江級軍艦命名為「塔江艦」、開箱「快速布雷艇」")
(i) 塔江艦 and 快速布雷艇 are two different kinds of vessels. 萬象二型水雷 (沉底雷) was in 快速布雷艇.
(ii) 沱江級巡邏艦
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/沱江級巡邏艦   
(英語:Tuo River class corvette同級艦; "第一艘原型艦 [lead ship] * * * 命名為「沱江軍艦」(簡稱「沱江艦」 [commissioned 2015]),舷號 PGG-618,以紀念1958年在九二 [Sept 2] 海戰立下戰功的同名艦"/ section 5 同級艦: second ship 塔江  起造日期 019年5月24日, 安放龍骨日期 [laid down (in the US, laid down date is 起造日期)] 2019年11月14日, 下水日期 [launched] 2020年12月15日, 服役日期 [commissioned] 2021年9月9日 量產型首艦)
• corvette (n): "a highly maneuverable armed escort ship that is smaller than a destroyer"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/corvette
• "是中华人民共和国四川省中部的一条河流,为长江的一条较小的一级支流。"  zj.wikipedia.org for 沱江.
• There seems to bne no 塔江 in China.
• 快速布雷艇: 舷號 FMLB-1, 2, 3, 4; no Chinese name

(c) HK01 correctly stated, "細數台軍目前的武力,也斷不可能有能力在解放軍的武力範圍內進行「攻擊性佈雷」 * * * 台軍不僅不具備空中佈雷的能力"

Perhaps that is what the WSJ essay wants to address. In fact, there have been murmurs within Taiwan and US to purchase Quickstrike sea mines -- the one that is under development in US, called Quickstrike-ER (extended range). (That is why yesterday afternoon I could not find a manufacturer for any quickstrike mines). See
(i) Megan Eckstein, US Naval Offensive Mining Updates Will Focus on Sub Community Tactics, Smart Mines. USNI News, Nov 5, 2019
https://news.usni.org/2019/11/05 ... tactics-smart-mines

Quote:

"The US Navy is taking offensive mining more seriously under the National Defense Strategy and is working to bring new technologies and tactics to the fleet to modernize mine warfare for a high-end fight.

"today the Navy has the Quickstrike family of mines – the Mk 62, Mk 63 and Mk 65 unguided 500-pound, 1,000-pound and 2,000-pound bombs, respectively – as well as the Mk 67 Submarine Launched Mobile Mine (SLMM) in its inventory.  In the works, though, is the integration of the Quickstrike mine with the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) tail kit and the Extended Range (ER) wing kit to increase the standoff distance when employing mines and to give them guidance capabilities.  The Navy first demonstrated the Quickstrike JDAM capability at the Valiant Shield 18 exercise in the Northern Mariana Islands last year, and it has also completed another operational demonstration, according to [senior leader for mine warfare within the Program Executive Office for Unmanned and Small Combatants Sam] Taylor's presentation slides. Navy photos show that a B-52 Stratofortress assigned to the Air Force's 49th Test and Evaluation Squadron in Louisiana conducted an operational demonstration of the Quickstrike-ER in the Pacific Ocean in May 2019.

• Take notice of the photo whose caption read: "The Quickstrike-Extended Range (QS-ER) Naval mine project drops towards the Pacific Ocean from a B-52 Stratofortress, assigned to the 49th Test and Evaluation Squadron from Barksdale Air Force Base, La., during an operational demonstration May 30. The QS-ER project was initiated by US Indo-Pacific Command as part of ongoing efforts to modernize and enhance military readiness throughout the joint forces in the Indo-Pacific region. US Navy photo."

That (experimental) Quickstrike-ER has a pair of wings on its back and therefore can glide in the air under remote guidance. The wings in part (besides JDAM) differentiates Quickstrike-ER from Mark-63 Quickstrike in the top photo of this article that "is mounted on a P-3 Orion aircraft" under its wing. This (and other) Mark-63 is unguided (dropped and sunk into sea) and not winged.
• Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a precision-guidance kit, separate and different from the wing device, is a kit that makes a dumb bomb smart (via GPS).
• US Department of Defense announced on July 20, 2021: "The Boeing Co, St Louis, Missouri, is awarded a $58,300,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee, undefinitized contract action for the design and production of [glide kit, not the mine itself, for] the Quickstrike Extended Range (QS-ER)." The glide kit will enables the mine to be launched from standoff distances of up to 40nm at 35,000ft (from an airplane).
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