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Ancestry of Modern-Day Japanese (They Are Mostly Han Chinese)

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发表于 9-22-2021 13:35:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
(1) Will Dunham, Study Rewrites Understanding of Modern Japan's Genetic Ancestry. Reuters, Sept 17, 2021.
https://www.reuters.com/world/as ... ncestry-2021-09-17/

Quote:

(a) "Research published on Friday showed that the people of Japan bear genetic signatures from three ancient populations rather than just two as previously thought

(b) "Previously documented genetic contributions were confirmed from two ancient groups. The first was Japan's indigenous culture of hunter-gatherers dating to roughly 15,000 years ago, the start of what is called the Jomon period. The second was a population of Northeast Asian origins who arrived at about 900 BC, bringing wet-rice farming during the subsequent Yayoi period.

"Modern Japanese possess approximately 13% and 16% genetic ancestry from those two groups, respectively, the researchers determined [in this study].

"But 71% of their ancestry [in an average Japanese today] was found to come from a third ancient population with East Asian origins that arrived at roughly 300 AD to launch what is called the Kofun period, bringing various cultural advances and developing centralized leadership. These migrants appear to have had ancestry mainly resembling the Han people who make up most of China's population.

(c) "The Kofun period is named after the large earthen tombs built for members of the new ruling class * * * 'Chinese characters started to be used in this period, such as Chinese characters inscribed on metal implements, for example swords,' [co-leader of this study: Trinity College Dublin (in Ireland) Shigeki] Nakagome [中込 滋樹] said.

(d) "The first people to reach Japan arrived more than 30,000 years ago at a time of lower sea levels when there may have been a land bridge [in what is presently Korea Strait, the entire which in Japan is called 対馬海峡] to the Asian mainland.

"The researchers also said the genetics of Japan's population have remained largely stable since the Kofun period, which lasted from around 300-700 AD.

Note:
(a)
(i) Jōmon period  縄文時代
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jōmon_period  
(c 14,000–300 BCE; "The name 'cord-marked' was first applied by the American zoologist and orientalist Edward S Morse, who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as Jōmon")
(ii) How did Morse make the discovery?

大森貝塚  Ōmori Shell Mound
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/大森貝塚
(縄文時代後期-末期の貝塚/ "1877年(明治10年)6月17日に横浜に上陸したアメリカ人の動物学者・エドワード・S・モースが、6月19日に横浜から新橋へ向かう途中、大森駅を過ぎてから直ぐの崖にseashellsが積み重なっているのを列車の窓から発見し、政府の許可を得た上9月16日に発掘調査を行った。 * * * 1955年(昭和30年)3月24日には、国の史跡に指定された。モースらの発掘した貝殻、土器、土偶、石斧、石鏃、鹿・鯨の骨片、人骨片などの出土品は東京大学に保管されており")

my ROUGH translation: In 1877, Morse landed in Yokohama. Destined for Tokyo's 新橋 neighborhood [named after a new bridge there, which is long gone and the river was covered], he was in a train that just passed 大森駅 train station [in Tokyo also], looked out the window and saw a cliff  right outside the window [直ぐの崖] a pile of seashells. With governmental permission, he dug through it.
(iii) The characteristic "cord marked pottery" (Morse's words) is obvious to any eye. See cord-markings on the surface of pottery in the middle photo in Jōmon pottery  縄文土器.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jōmon_pottery

(b) The "Northeast Asian origins" in quotation 2 is the conclusion of the new paper, unknown before. See next posting.
(c)
(i) Yayoi period  弥生時代
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yayoi_period   
("The name Yayoi is borrowed from a location in Tokyo where pottery of the Yayoi period was first found")

The potteries was first unearthed in "1884年(明治17年)に東京府本郷区向ヶ岡弥生町(現在の東京都文京区弥生)の貝塚."  ja.wikipedia.org for 弥生時代.
(ii) Yayoi KUSAMA  草間 彌生
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yayoi_Kusama
was named after the period. Note 彌 in her given name, in lieu of 弥. The latter is in the government-sanctioned 常用漢字 since 1981; the previous official attempt to simplified kanji was in 1946 with 当用漢字. The Artist was born in 1929 and sticks to the old character.

From the Web: "When she returned to Japan in 1973, Kusama suffered a mental breakdown. She checked herself in 1977 into Seiwa Hospital [清和病院; some postings based in Taiwan mistakenly identify the hospital as 清河] in Shinjuku, Tokyo, where she has been living ever since. Her art studio is within walking distance."

(d)
(i) Kofun period  古墳時代
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kofun_period
(ii) 古墳
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/古墳
, whose top photo has a caption: "大仙陵古墳は、日本最大の古墳にして前方後円墳の代表例。宮内庁 [palace] は百舌鳥耳原中陵もずのみみはらのなかのみささぎと呼び、仁徳天皇の陵墓(別名:仁徳天皇陵) * * * "

my translation: 大仙陵古墳 is the largest 古墳 in Japan. 前方後円墳 [as viewed from the air]. Officially 百舌鳥耳原中陵も [pronunciation: ずのみみはらのなか], [which is] 仁徳天皇の陵墓.

In the same Wiki page, photos 2 and 3, respectively, shows what the burial mound now looks, and then looked, like.
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 楼主| 发表于 9-22-2021 13:35:59 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 choi 于 9-22-2021 15:08 编辑

the paper at issue:
(2) Coolke NP, et al, Ancient Genomics Reveals Tripartite Origins of Japanese Populations. Science Advances, 7: _ (page number unknown, as this is Sept 17, 2021 online publication prior to print)/
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abh2419

Quote:

"[Introduction:] From a historical linguistic standpoint, the arrival of proto-Japonic language is theorized to map to the development of Yayoi culture and the spread of wet rice cultivation ([Reference No] 6). * * * [Results:] Most of the sampled ancient populations in the continent do not show significant affinity to the Yayoi, including populations from the Yellow River basin (20) where rice farming first spread from the lower Yangtze Valley (a hypothetical origin of japonica rice, i.e., wet rice) (36).

Discussion: "The continental component inherited by the Yayoi is best represented in our dataset by the Middle Neolithic and Bronze Age individuals from the West Liao River basin with a high level of Amur River ancestry [This is what Reuters meant by 'Northeast Asia']. * * * Our findings imply that wet rice farming was introduced to the archipelago by people who lived somewhere around the Liaodong Peninsula but who derive a major component of their ancestry from populations further north [Amur River], although the spread of rice agriculture originated south [hypothetically Yangtze] of the West Liao River basin (55). * * * The most noticeable archaeological characteristic of Kofun culture is the custom of burying the elite in keyhole-shaped mounds, the size of which reflect hierarchical rank and political power (1). The three Kofun individuals sequenced in this study were not buried in those tumuli (see note S1), which suggests that they were lower-ranking people. Their genomes document the arrival of people with majority East Asian ancestry to Japan and their admixture with the Yayoi population (Fig. 5 and fig. S17 [S stands for Supplemental, which is not shown in this Web page] ). This additional ancestry is best represented in our analysis by Han, who have multiple ancestral components. A recent study has reported that people became morphologically homogeneous in the continent from the Neolithic onward (56), which implies that migrants during the Kofun period were already highly admixed.

Note:
(a)
(i) Advances is a new and sister journal of Science magazine.
(ii) This article did not mention Ainu, much less their origin.
(iii) So 秦始皇 童男童女 did not contribute to genetic make-up of present-day Japanese, and likely never did (and died in the sea).

(b) wet rice cultivation
(i) How Rice Grows. Nowhere in the world is rice production more advanced than in California. Careful attention to every step in the cropping cycle and milling ensures that rice produced in our warm Mediterranean climate meets-and often exceeds-customers' expectations for great rice. California Rice (by California Rice Commission), undated.
https://calrice.org/industry/how-rice-grows/
(ii) Daniel Geisseler and William R Horwath, Rice Production in California. Univ of California Davis, last update June 2016
geisseler.ucdavis.edu/Guidelines/Rice_Production_CA.pdf
("California growers produce about 20% of the US rice harvest. Medium grain varieties dominate California production, accounting for roughly 90% of the production. In contrast, with a share of 74%, long grain varieties dominate the US production, followed by medium grain varieties with 25%. * * * only 0.3% of US long grain rice is produced in California, while this proportion is 75% for medium grain rice and 98% for short grain rice")

Please read the entire page.
(iii) California Rice 101. California Rice Commission, undated
https://calrice.org/pdf/crc101guide_mw_06.pdf
("California farmers specialize in short and medium grain Japonica type rice * * * Primary rice types are the indica and japonica varieties. Indica rices are characterized by fluffy, separate kernels when cooked and are typically long grain rices that grow near the equator. The indica rice kernel is four to five times longer than it is wide and has higher levels of amylose, the inner portion of a starch granule, that makes long grain rice fluffy and separate when cooked. Japonica rices, which fare well in temperate and mountainous regions, usually are the medium and short grain varieties. The sticky and moist characteristics of japonica rices [the guide also talks about 'indica rices'] make them ideal for Mediterranean and Asian cuisines. The medium grain kernel is two to three times longer than it is wide and has a lower amylose level that provides a more sticky consistency when prepared. Japonica varieties account for about 95 percent of the rice grown in California")
• starch
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch  
("It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical [which makes amylose harder to digest] amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.[4] Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more highly branched version of amylopectin")
(iv) Briana L Gross and Zhijun Zhao, Archaeological and Genetic Insights into the Origins of Domesticated Rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 111: 6190 (2014).
https://www.pnas.org/content/111/17/6190

Quote:

"In China, the time around 8,000 y ago appears to have been critical for agricultural origins, not only for rice in the Yangtze River area, but also for millet agriculture in the Yellow River system of northern China. For example, several archaeological sites exhibiting the characteristics of early rice farming have all been dated to around 8000 BP [before present].

"As with the Korean peninsula, wild rice does not occur in Japan today and probably never did. It is therefore generally agreed that rice agriculture diffused to Japan, and it is thought this occurred during the Yayoi period, which began ∼2800 BP (44). Very similar to the situation in the Korean peninsula, early rice farming in Japan appears to have involved paddy rice farming [submerged in water]. Although a highly productive rice agriculture probably began in the Yayoi period, it is increasingly likely that domesticated rice was introduced into the Japanese archipelago earlier, during the late Jomon period, some time around 4000 BP. * * *  domesticated rice was introduced into Japan before the Yayoi period, although it is not clear how large a part of the subsistence base rice was at that time. This rice appears to have been a part of a dry-land agriculture system

"[Abstract:] ice was also cultivated in India as early as 5000 BP, but the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica. * * * [text:] It now appears that an independent origin of cultivation of ancestral indica or proto-indica rice took place in the Ganges plains, but that the plant was completely domesticated only when domesticated japonica arrived from China and hybridized with it about 4,000 y ago (47).

• There is no need to read the rest of this article.
• Presently Indians grow indica rice submerged. So it is not like long grains grow in dry land.
• Japonica rices are divided into upland and lowland rice. Upland rice can grow on dry land without submerging in water.
(c) For West Liao River 西辽河, see map in Liao River
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liao_River
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