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Airspace Not Same as ADIZ + 印太 or 亚太 + 解放军抢滩登陆演练

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发表于 10-12-2021 15:30:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 10-12-2021 15:32 编辑

(1) 埃科尔斯, 从技术事实上讲,中国军机没有侵入台湾领空. VOA Chinese, Oct 12, 2021
https://www.voachinese.com/a/tec ... -10-12/6267784.html

Quote:

(a) "56架中国战机在10月4日飞入台湾的西南防空识别区(ADIZ),创下迄今为止的单日出动军机数量的最高记录。台湾国防部在当日报告此事件的声明中使用了'西南空域'一词,英语版使用了ADIZ这一缩写。

(b) "台海紧张局势触发国际舆论,许多媒体和一些政界人士声称中国侵犯了台湾领空(airspace)。

"括美国之音、福克斯新闻(Fox News)、美国全国广播公司新闻(NBC News)、澳大利亚天空新闻(Sky News Australia)、澳洲新闻网(news.au.com)、《星条旗报》(Stars and Stripes)和德新社(DPA)在内的许多家媒体都在其推特的新闻推送或文章标题中称,中国战机已进入台湾领空。

"不过这些媒体报道的正文中均正确使用了防空识别区的说法。

"在美国政界,也有数名来自参众两院的议员和前议员重复了这个并不确切的说法。

"但是,'领空'与'防空识别区'截然不同,做出区分是重要的。

"撇开北京的威胁性意图不谈,如果将台湾军方所说的'空域' (a term invented by Taiwan maybe (for this occasion); there is no corresponding English) 或'防空识别区'(ADIZ [air space defense zone])等同于'领空'(airspace),说中国侵犯了台湾领空,这从技术事实上来讲是错误的

(c) "根据对国际空中航行做出规定的《国际民用航空公约》(Convention On International Civil Aviation [signed in 1944 in Chicago; after ratification by individual signatory nations, went into effect in 1947]),'每个国家对其领土上空的空间具有完全的和排他的主权。'

"该公约指出,一个国家的领土包括其领海 [territorial sea -- based on the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea],也就是从一国的基线(即沿岸低潮线)向外延伸12海里的水域。主权也涵盖一个国家的内水 [nternal waters],即领海基线向陆一侧的水域。

(d) "而防空识别区是一个不同的概念。

"位于美国的智库全球安全(Globalsecurity.org)将防空识别区定义为'一国防空部队所遵循的、(该国)单方面建立的一套常规,' 这些常规没有国际条约或国际法律的支撑 [including the size and bpundaries of an ADIZ]。

"不过,Globalsecurity.org也写道,如果其他国家'做好了自己的飞机被拦截的准备,' 就无需遵守这些要求。

"包括中国、日本、韩国和美国在内的大约20个国家已设有防空识别区。


My comment:
(a) I fail to find an English original and who the author is, whether 埃科尔斯 is American or Chinese, or what the English is for 埃科尔斯.

Wait. I am lucky and stumble into
William Echols, Technically, China Did Not Invade Taiwan's Airspace. Polygraph.info, Oct 6, 2021.
https://www.polygraph.info/a/fac ... space/31496290.html
(b) "(Globalsecurity.org)将防空识别区定义为'一国防空部队所遵循的、(该国)单方面建立的一套常规。这些常规没有国际条约或国际法律的支撑。* * * Globalsecurity.org也写道,如果其他国家'做好了自己的飞机被拦截的准备,' 就无需遵守这些要求。"

ADIZ-East China Sea. Global Security.org, undated (table of contents on ADIZ is in the right upper corner of this Web page)
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/adiz.htm
("On 23 November 2013, and effective immediately, China's defense ministry released an air defense zone map for the East China Sea * * * The ADIZ is simply a unilaterally established set of procedures followed by one country's air defense forces, and does not have to be "accepted" by other countries if they are prepared to have their aircraft intercepted. The US military as a matter of policy does not comply with ADIZ procedures of other countries, as this would amount to announcing planned movements of warplanes. Non-acceptance in whole or in part by other countries will keep China quite busy scrambling, and this does increase the risk of miscalculation")

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 楼主| 发表于 10-12-2021 15:31:31 | 显示全部楼层
(2) 柳飞. 加拿大以'印太'取代'亚太' 对抗中国?  RFA, Oct 12, 2021.
https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yat ... 10122021151525.html

(3) 黄春梅 (台北), 解放军放出抢滩登陆演练视频 '台海兵凶无战危.' RFA, Oct 12, 2021
https://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yat ... 10122021051311.html
("据央视军事报导,冲锋舟 [Taiwan does not have such a term] 速度快 * * * 解放军的装甲突击车(ZTD-05两栖突击车 [ZBD = 装甲 步兵战车 履带式.  ZTD = 装甲 坦克 履带式]) * * * [台湾的国防安全研究院国防战略与资源研究所所长苏紫云] 苏紫云解释,尽管解放军突击车性能不差,但因为需要在海上浮游,所以装甲较薄弱,真正进行野战登陆时,面对 '守方' 例如国军连番火力的狙击,存活力比较不乐观。  苏紫云:'在进入火炮射程之前就会被国军的拖式飞弹或是标枪飞弹进行截击,靠近岸边时国军的主力战车也可以开始进行射击。在岸边附近时,国军云豹甲车30机炮也可以轻易贯穿他的装甲' ")

Note:
(a) 拖式飞弹

BGM-71 TOW
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BGM-71_TOW
("Originally designed by Hughes Aircraft in the 1960s, the weapon is currently produced by Raytheon"/  table: "Guidance system]:] Optically tracked, wire-guided (Wireless Radio-guided in RF variants)" )
(i) BGM stands for "Surface Attack (B) Guided (G) Missile (M)." The only other BGM in US military jargon is BGM-109
Tomahawk (missile).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomahawk_(missile)

See also AGM-114 Hellfire (fired from air).
(ii) wire-guided missile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire-guided_missile
(photo)
(iii) David Wichner, Raytheon's TOW Missile Still Flying After 50 Years. Arizona Daily Star (newspaper), Dec 25, 2012 (updated July 2, 2014)
https://tucson.com/business/loca ... a-cd2cbb28b5b3.html

Quote:

(A) "Tucson-based Raytheon Missile Systems and predecessor Hughes Aircraft have been making TOW guided anti-tank missiles for 50 years, right here in Tucson. * * * Raytheon - Southern Arizona's largest private employer with about 10,500 local workers * * *

(B) "Since the first TOW missiles were delivered in 1969, more than 650,000 copies have been produced for the U.S. and its allies, and they've been used in every major conflict since the Vietnam War.

"But today's TOW isn't your granddad's TOW [after 'not your father's Oldsmobile' (originally produced by Olds Motor Vehicle Company establshed by Ransom E Olds in 1897 in Lansing, Michigan].

(C) "And perhaps most notably [among the upgrades], the TOW has lost its 'tail.' [Here it means the wire, not tail wings, which are still needed to stabilize the missile.]

"The original TOW (which originally stood for Tube-Launched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided) missile featured thin wires that spooled out for thousands of yards to carry guidance signals to the weapon.

"The latest ground-launched TOW receives commands from the gunner through a wireless guidance link, eliminating the wire connection.

"In 2006, Raytheon won its first contract to produce wireless TOWs. (Hughes had proposed a wireless TOW in the late 1980s, but it was not adopted.)

(b) 标枪飞弹

FGM-148 Javelin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FGM-148_Javelin
(table: producer: "(now Raytheon and Lockheed Martin)[,] Guidance system  Infrared homing)

This Wiki page provides scant information, so does the Web.  I do not know what FGM stabnds for.
(i) javelin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javelin
("is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown")
(ii) spearhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spear
("The word spear comes from the Old English spere * * * Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting as a melee weapon and those designed for throwing as a ranged weapon (usually referred to as darts [a dart has feathers on the tail] or javelins)"

(c) The first photo of this article may be related to the following sentence imn the text: "中国官方媒体发出一段解放军近日在闽南进行抢滩登陆演练的视频。"

I am impressed by the brown sand that stretches to the horizon. I was born and grew up in Kaohsiung, where the beach has black sand (from igneous rock out of volcanos which have not been active; Latin noun masculine ignis fire) and is quite short and narrow (unsuitable for amphibian assault).
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