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Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Uses Technology

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发表于 10-26-2021 15:05:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Tanya Mohn, An Ancient Eureka Moment; The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is using technology to stir appreciation for the classics. New York Times, Oct 24, 2021 (at page 4 of the session "FineArts&Exhibits").
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/ ... rts-technology.html
https://newshere.org/2021/10/20/ ... -recreated-in-film/

Note:
(a) Greek vase.
(i) How to Make an Athenian Vase. The anime is not available in the Web, for free at least.
(ii)
(A) In print, the NYT article includes two sides of the same jar: one side showing black figures and the other side red figures.

Two-Handled Jar (Amphora) with Herakles Driving a Bull to Sacrifice. Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), undated
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/153401  
("about 525–520 BC[;] Place of Manufacture: Greece, Attica, Athens")
(B)
• Athens
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athens
("Modern scholars now generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city" -- not the other way around) )
• Accent on the first syllable whose vowel is same as that in apple, Attica "is an historical region that encompasses the city of Athens * * * It is a peninsula * * * [The name was] in the honour of Atthis, daughter of king Cranaus of Athens." (Both king and daughter are in Greek mythology, not real.) en.wikipedia.org for Attica.  Its corresponding adjective is Attic.
(C) amphora
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphora

Return to the preceding MFA page, and you can see the amphora rests on a rack, which is not integral to amphora.
(D) In English Hercules was borrowed unchanged from Latin of the same spelling, which in turns came from Ancient Greek Herakles (proper name; Ancient Greek Ἡρακλῆς (romanization: Hēraklês), from Ἥρα (Hḗra, Hera) +‎ κλέος (kléos, glory):
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Heracles
• About the Rivalry Between Hercules and Hera Greek Boston (based on Wikipedia), undated
https://www.greekboston.com/cult ... alry-hercules-hera/
("Basically, Hera didn't like him because she was the child of one of Zeus’s mistresses. As mentioned above, Hera often exacted her revenge against Zeus's mistresses and sometimes even the children who were born from these unions. Hercules happened to be one of these children since his father was Zeus and his mother was mortal [ie, human] named Alcmene. She was described as a very beautiful woman, and when Zeus saw her, he knew he wanted to be with her. According to Homer, just before Hercules was born, Zeus announced a prophecy that would have made Hercules the ruler of the heavens in his place when the time came")
• Heracles
https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/heracles  
(pronunciation)
(iii) "The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, holds a rare vase from that period, one of only about 55 in the world that shows both black and red figure painting."
(A) red-figure pottery
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red-figure_pottery   
("It developed in Athens around 520 BC and remained in use until the late 3rd century BC. It replaced the previously dominant style of black-figure vase painting within a few decades)

section 1 Technique: "Red figure is, put simply, the reverse of the black figure technique. Both were achieved by using the three-phase firing technique. * * * The outlines of the intended figures were drawn either with a blunt scraper, leaving a slight groove, or with charcoal [made up of carbon], which would disappear entirely during firing. Then the contours were redrawn with a brush, using a glossy clay slip. * * * the rather liquid glossy clay [which is slop] * * * Then, the vases underwent triple-phase firing, during which the glossy clay reached its characteristic black or black-brown colour through reduction, the reddish color by a final re-oxidation. Since this final oxidizing phase was fired using lower temperatures, the glazed parts of the vase did not re-oxidize from black to red: their finer surface was melted (sintered) in the reducing phase, and now protected from oxygen."

(B) Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure Techniques. The Met (Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan), undated
https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/vase/hd_vase.htm
("a slip (clay in a more liquid form) * * * In black-figure vase painting, figural and ornamental motifs were applied with a slip that turned black during firing, while the background was left the color of the clay. * ** * The red-figure technique was invented around 530 B.C., quite possibly by the potter Andokides and his workshop. It gradually replaced the black-figure technique as innovators recognized the possibilities that came with drawing forms, rather than laboriously delineating them with incisions. * * * The firing process of both red- and black-figure vessels consisted of [the same] three stages. During the first, oxidizing stage, air was allowed into the kiln, turning the whole vase the color of the clay. In the subsequent stage, green wood was introduced into the chamber and the oxygen supply was reduced, causing the object to turn black in the smoky environment. In the third stage, air was reintroduced into the kiln; the reserved portions turned back to orange while the glossed areas [where slip had been applied] remained black")


(b) "Part of the job of a curator — the word comes from the Latin 'to care' — Dr [Phoebe] Segal[, one of the curators of Greek and Roman art at the (MFA) museum,] said, 'is to keep the material relevant, to make it clear to people why they should care."

English dictionary:
* curator (n; "borrowed from Latin [noun masculine] cūrātor "one who looks after, superintendent, guardian," from [verb] cūrāre "to watch over, attend" + [Latin suffix masculine] -tor, agent suffix [-er in English] — more at CURE")
* The English noun cure and verb are, respectively, from Latin noun feminine cura cure and verb curare to care.


(c) "In antiquity, statues were typically brightly painted or decorated with gilding and precious stones, but over time, colors dissolved or were stripped away. A 3-D digital reconstruction of the statue of Athena Parthenos can be experienced through augmented reality available on the museum's app * * * The goal is to recreate how people in ancient Rome may have seen it — in color. * * * The museum conservation team examined trace pigments on the mostly white statue of Athena using special lights and photographic techniques, and chemical analysis."
(i) Search images.google.com with (Museums Use Technology to Stir Interest in the Artistic Past) -- no quotation marks or parentheses -- and you will see most of the photos that came with this NYT article, including the painted statute.

MFA's contribution is colorization of the statue (Athena Parthenos), not fulfilling the parts that are missing in replicas.
(ii) Statue of Athena Parthenos (the Virgin Goddess). MFA, undated
https://collections.mfa.org/obje ... -the-virgin-goddess  
(Roman, "2nd or 3rd century AD"/ MEDIUM/TECHNIQUE Marble from Mt Pentelikon near Athens; DIMENSIONS Overall: 154 cm)

Quote: "DESCRIPTION[:] Roman-period replica of the cult statue that once stood within the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, a chryselephantine (gold and ivory) colossal statue designed by the master sculptor Phidias and dedicated in 438 BC. The goddess wears a helmet on which are remains of Pegasoi on either side flanking a sphinx of which only the paws remain; above the visor are parts of protomes, probably deer; griffins in relief on the cheek pieces. Curls frame the face, tresses fall on her shoulders. Gorgon on aegis which is edged by snakes; snakes encircle her waist forming knot at the center."

(A) There is pegasus, and there is pegasoi (both are singular); they are different.
Theresa Bane, Encyclopedia of Beasts and Monsters in Myth, Legend and Folklore. McFarland & Co, Inc (2016), at page 254
https://books.google.com/books?i ... tionary&f=false
("Pegasoi Aithiopes[:] A species of winged horse, the pegasoi aithiopes were said to also have an alicorn (a single horn) growing out of the middle of their forehead (see PEGASUS).  Source: Breverton, Breverton's Phantasmagoria, 177.
Pegasus[:] * * * ")

English dictionary:
* phantasmagoria (n; "History and Etymology for phantasmagoria")
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/phantasmagoria
(pronunciation)
(B) For pegasoi aithiope, see Ethiopian pegasus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_pegasus  
("According to Pliny the Elder, they were a breed of two-horned; winged horses from Ethiopia")

Greek-English dictionary:
* Αιθίοπας (romanization: Aithiopas; noun masculine; plural: Αιθίοπες  Aithiopes): "Ethiopian"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Αιθίοπας
* Modern Greek for the nation Ethiopia is Αἰθιοπία (romanization: Aithiopia).
(iii) Athena Parthenos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena_Parthenos

Ancient Greek-English dictionary:
* παρθένος (noun feminine; romanization: parthénos): "virgin"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/παρθένος
(iv) Varvakeion Athena
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varvakeion_Athena  
("she wears the aegis [from shoulder to shoulder], decorated with snakes and with the gorgoneion in the center * * * The statue is named for the locale of its discovery in 1880, near the original site of the Varvakeion School")

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