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Sameness in the sea of American Varieties + Cheeses

发表于 11-4-2021 15:49:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 11-6-2021 07:01 编辑

Obituary Anne Saxelby | Say Cheese, America!  Anne Saxelby, champion of artisan dairy farmers, died on October 9th, aged 40. Economist, Oct 30, 2021.
https://www.economist.com/obitua ... ers-and-their-wares

(i) I did not know or hear of her. Presumably her significance is implied in the online, but not print, subtitle in Economist,com: "pioneering cheesemonger" -- one who sells, but does not make, cheese.
(ii) In the Web, I can find no diagnosis of her heart condition.
(iii) Anne Saxelby bachelor's degree in a studio art from New York University, was the founder and co-owner of Saxelby Cheesemongers (2006- ), and passed away in her sleep due to an enlarged heart. Signifying heart failure, an enlarged heart can come from enlargement of chambers or wall; either way, there is  an underlying heart disease that is chronic (not acute), which gives time to heart to adapt to do its best -- until at last it (heart) can not do it any longer. The medical term is
("Cardiomegaly is not a disease, but rather a")
complication -- consequence of underlying disease, not necessarily in heart but can be elsewhere. For example, pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in lung only but not systemically (not in the rest of the body) will cause cardiomegaly, because heart (right ventricle specifically) try to push blood into lung.

In Taiwan, I observed an autopsy, where a woman about 50 was on the table, hHer heart was twice the normal size, which is the size of one's clenched fist. Her enlarged heart comes from enlarged chambers, without thickened wall, which made the heart ;ppl fragile, like a deflated basketball once the

(b) "Why do so many local newspapers have the same antique masthead?"
(i) Is the emphasis on "same" or "antique"?  Either way, I did not see them. By antique newspaper mastheads, does it mean typeface?
(ii) masthead
("may refer to:
• nameplate (publishing), the banner name on the front page of a newspaper or periodical (UK 'masthead')
* * *
• the top of a mast (sailing), a tall vertical pole of a ship which supports the sails")
(iii) antique newspaper masthead = vintage newspaper masthead
(iv) Trying to know what it is, I search images.google.com with ("antique" newspaper masthead) -- quotation marks around antique only. One of the search return is masthead of Puck (magazine).
(1871/ 1877 - 1918)

(c) "Few things have surprised them [European visitors to America] more, almost into the present century, than the sameness of cheese. From sea to shining sea, America has traditionally offered six. Industrial milky mozzarella, as on pizza; blue cheese, usually as sauce in a plastic bottle; Swiss, a block of pale, thin, rubbery slices, tasting of nothing; Monterey Jack, a pale attempt at Cheddar; inoffensive cream cheese; and then, in orange glory, processed cheese, liquid or semi-solid, to melt onto burgers or to drown nachos in.
(i) mozzarella
("is a traditionally southern Italian cheese made from Italian [water] buffalo's milk [In US, buffalo is bison] * * * Due to its high moisture content, it is traditionally served the day after it is made but can be kept in brine for up to a week[,] or longer when sold in vacuum-sealed packages. * * * [section 1 Etymology] * * * Outside the EU, 'mozzarella' not clearly labeled as deriving from water buffalo can be presumed to derive from cow milk. * * * [section 4 Production]" )
(ii) blue cheese
Most kinds of blue cheese are made with Penicillium roquefort. The rest of blue cheese are made with Penicillium glaucum.
(A) The first blue cheese, Roquefort, was made in Roquefort (disambiguation)
(may refer to: "Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, Aveyron")
(B) Roquefort. Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated
("The designation Roquefort is protected by French law [see the end of this quotation].  Roquefort is one of the oldest known cheeses. * * * Today some authentic Roqueforts are made in Corsica, but all still undergo final aging in the limestone caves of Roquefort near Toulouse in southern France, where the cool and humid atmosphere promotes growth of the mold Penicillium roqueforti. By French law, only cheese that is processed at Roquefort, France, may be labeled 'Roquefort cheese'; other French blue-veined cheeses are called 'bleu' cheese")
(C) Roquefort
(D) Gary Allen, The History of Roquefort French Dressing. The Rambling Epicure, Sept 14, 2018
("Roquefort cheese has been made in the caves of Combalou, Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, at least since Gaul was occupied by the Romans — Pliny the Elder spoke highly of it, and he was not the sort who normally gushed gourmet superlatives. * * * The best-known dish making use of Roquefort Dressing is Buffalo Chicken Wings [which is unbreaded], a dish invented by Frank and Teressa Bellissimo, at the Anchor Bar, 1047 Main Street, Buffalo, New York. The hot-sauce-drenched wings, accompanied by celery sticks and Roquefort Dressing, were first served in 1964")
(iii) Monterey Jack
(white; [pasteurized] cow's milk' "In its earliest form, Monterey Jack was made by 18th-century Franciscan friars of Monterey, Alta California. California businessman David Jacks sold the cheese commercially [that is how Jack became part of the cheese name]")
(iv) processed cheese

Please read it from top top bottom, even if you do not understand. After you read the following, return to this Wiki page, and you will appreciate it more.
(A) 9.6.1 Natural And Processed Cheese. In Chapter 9: Food and Agricultural Industries. AP42, 5th ed. vol 1. EPA, ;ast updated in 2001.


"The United States is one of the largest producers of cheese in the world.

" General[:] Popular types of natural cheeses include unripened (eg, cottage cheese, cream cheese) * * * Examples of processed cheeses include American cheese and various cheese spreads, which are made by blending two or more varieties of cheese or blending portions of the same type of cheese that are in different stages of ripeness.

" Process Description[:] The modern manufacture of natural cheese consists of four basic steps: coagulating, draining, salting, and ripening. Processed cheese manufacture incorporates extra steps, including cleaning, blending, and melting. No two cheese varieties [of both natural and processed] are produced by the same method. However, manufacturing different cheeses does not require widely different procedures but rather the same steps with variations during each step, the same steps with a variation in their order, special applications, or different ripening practices.

" Natural Cheese Manufacture - * * * Ripening - During the ripening or curing stage, varieties of cheeses acquire their own unique textures, aromas, appearances, and tastes through complex physical and chemical changes that are controlled as much as possible by adjusting temperature, humidity, and duration of ripening. For all cheeses, the purpose of ripening is to allow beneficial bacteria and enzymes to transform the fresh curd into a cheese of a specific flavor, texture, and appearance. Cottage and cream cheeses are not ripened, and usually have a bland flavor and soft body.  
Some cheeses require the application of a special ripening agent to create a particular taste or texture. For example, some cheeses rely wholly on surface bacteria and yeast applied to their exteriors for curing and ripening (eg, Brick, Brie, Camembert); others require injection of particular bacteria and molds (eg, Blue) or gas-forming microorganisms (eg, Swiss). It is during the ripening stage that the rind or crust forms on the cheese's surface. The rind controls the loss of moisture from the internal part of the cheese and regulates the escape of gases released during ripening.   Many ripened cheeses are coated in wax to protect them from mold contamination and to reduce the rate of moisture loss. Cheeses that naturally develop a thick, tightly woven rind, such as Swiss, do not require waxing.

" Processed Cheese Manufacture - Nearly one-third of all cheese produced in the United States consists of processed cheese and processed cheese products. * * * Processed cheese is made by pasteurizing, emulsifying, and blending natural cheese. Processed cheese foods, spreads, and cold pack cheeses contain additional ingredients, such as nonfat milk solids and condiments. Several varieties of natural cheeses may be mixed, and powdered milk, whey, cream or butter, and water may be added. The following section describes the basic steps necessary for producing asteurized
process cheese, the most common processed cheese.

Pasteurized Process Cheese -
Cheeses are selected to be processed from both mild and sharp cheeses. For example, American cheese is made from Cheddar and Colby cheeses."

• AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AP ... nt_Emission_Factors
• Standing for air pollutant, AP42's 5th edition came out in 1995.   "In 2001, EPA discontinued publishing supplements to the 5th edition of AP 42." -- from EPA website.
(B) Alex Delany, What Is Processed Cheese, and Should We Eat It?  Bon Appétit, Apr 15, 2018
("Processed cheese is not 100% cheese. Most of the time it hovers around 50% cheese, sometimes more and sometimes less, but at a base level, processed cheese is real cheese cut with other, non-cheese ingredients. Those extra ingredients can include salt, food dyes, preservatives, extra dairy, emulsifiers, or other artificial ingredients.* * * Processing produces cheese that melts like a dream without becoming oily or separating, facilitating the kinds of ooey-gooey cheese pulls that populate Instagram feeds the world over. But really, these ingredients end up in processed cheese because it makes it last longer on the shelf. The preservatives are what give processed cheese the biggest draw. Some processed cheese doesn’t even need to be refrigerated; it can sit at room temperature for a seemingly-indefinite amount of time. * * * It’s cheaper for the producer, the seller, and the consumer. It’s about money and time. * * * Processed cheese can be amazing, and there are times when nothing else will do. If we're talking about a cheeseburger or a breakfast sandwich, we're hoping to see a perfectly melty piece of American cheese on top of that patty or egg. American cheese (and many other processed cheeses) melts in a way that real cheese doesn't, and we love it for that. Cheese Whiz [another processed cheese] on a cheesesteak? Approved. * * * Not only is it not the healthiest thing out there, but it backs you into a corner that's filled with one-noted cheeses. Because of the production process, real cheese holds flavor possibilities that processed cheese will never be able to replicate. The farms that raise the dairy animals, the hands of the cheesemakers, the microorganisms that convert milk into thousands of distinctly different, cheesy delights are all a part of what makes cheese special. With processed cheese, absolute consistency is the name of the game")
• Bon Appétit
(1956- ; monthly; Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered at Manhattan)
• For "one-noted cheeses," see note (n): "2a: a characteristic feature (as of odor or flavor)"


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 楼主| 发表于 11-6-2021 07:01:55 | 显示全部楼层
paragraph 3: "Anne Saxelby was brought up, in Chicago, with all that schlock. Kraft singles were the default in her house, and 'fancy cheese' ​was white American, sliced to order from the supermarket deli. But she became so fascinated by the possibilities odf cheese in America, that in 2006 she opened, in Essex Market on New York's Lower East Side, a tiny stall that sold cheese made only on farms in America's northeast. * * *

paragraph 4: * * * pin[ her shoe-box [a figurative to mean extremely small] in Essex Market * * * Thus customers were introduced to Jasper Hill Calderwood, a hay-ripened raw cow's-milk cheese, and Harbison, a petite bloomy-rind number wrapped in spruce bark. * * *

paragraph 5: "She also calmed more general fears. Cheese did [I am clueless why past tense was used in this and the following paragraphs. Can it because she died?] not make you fat; 75% of its calories might come from fat, but it was the good sort. * * * The runaway gooeyness of soft cheese wasn't bad or wrong, but a sign of ever deliciousness., * * * You could eat cheese with mold -- just cut cut off * * *     

paragraph 6: "Cheese was alive, in a good way. Rather than going off, it wonderfully ripened. And contrary to the beliefs of most Americans, the raw-milk [ie, unpasteurized[ cheese that filled her stall was not dangerous. As long as the animals were healthy and the cheesemaking sanitary, raw milk offered only benefits: a better taste * * *

paragraph 9: " * * * she died of the heart condition she had never allowed to deflect her.

(a) There is no need to read the rest.
(b) schlock (n; from Yiddish): "informal North American   cheap or inferior goods or material; trash"
(i) Jasper Hill Farm
("In 2003, Jasper Hill was approached by Cabot Creamery to collaborate on aging a natural-rind clothbound cheddar, which became known as Cabot Clothbound Cheddar")
(ii) Compare Jasper (given name)
Casper (given name)
(section 1 Origins)
(iii) Jasper Hill Farm

Click "CHEESE" in the top horizontal bar.
(A) Cabot Clothbound: "After it [young cheese] comes to the Cellars, we coat the young cheese in lard and add an additional layer of cloth. The cheeses ripen in a specially calibrated vault in our Cellars, where they are constantly brushed, turned, and monitored for quality.

Old World Clothbound Cheddar. Whole Foods, Apr 3, 2011
https://www.wholefoodsmarket.com ... -clothbound-cheddar
(B) Harbison: "HARBISON is named for Anne Harbison [a local woman whose information I can not find in the Web] * * * Harbison is a soft-ripened cheese with a rustic, bloomy rind. Young cheeses are wrapped in strips of spruce cambium, the tree's inner bark layer, harvested from the woodlands of Jasper Hill. The spoonable texture begins to develop in our vaults, though the paste continues to soften on the way to market.Harbison is a soft-ripened cheese with a rustic, bloomy rind. Young cheeses are wrapped in strips of spruce cambium, the tree's inner bark layer, harvested from the woodlands of Jasper Hill. The spoonable texture begins to develop in our vaults, though the paste continues to soften on the way to market.
• bloomy (adj):
"1: full of bloom
2: covered with bloom   <bloomy plums [or grapesl with whiteness on the skin]>
* * *
4: having or being a thin, whitish rind formed on cheese by exposure to mold"
• bloom (n):
* * *
3: a surface coating or appearance: such as
a: a delicate powdery coating on some fruits and leaves"
(C) Calderwood is not among them.
(iv) "Calderwood is a hay-ripened raw cow's milk cheese made exclusively for Saxelby Cheesemongers by our good friends at Jasper Hill Farm."  from Savelby's store.

It is essentially Brie.
(v) There are a few hay cheeses in the world, none of which explains why hat is better or distinct for ripening cheese.

(i) pasteurization
("Diseases prevented by pasteurization can include tuberculosis, brucellosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and Q-fever; it also kills the harmful bacteria Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, among others") )citations omitted)
(ii) Bovine Tuberculosis. World Organization for Animal Health, United Nations, undated.

Human tuberculosis is cased by Mycobacterium tuberculosis *the same genus, but different species of the bacteria that causes bovine tuberculosis.
(iii) National Tuberculosis Eradication Program. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, last updated on Oct 23, 2020
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis ... eradication-program
("Bovine TB, caused by M bovis, can be transmitted from livestock to humans and other animals.  Once the most prevalent infectious disease of cattle and swine in the United States, bovine TB caused more losses among US farm animals in the early part of the 20th century than all other infectious diseases combined. [click "Prevention and Eradication of Tuberculosis" in the menu to lead to:] The prevalence of TB in cattle, bison and captive cervids is extremely low in the US occurring roughly 7 times per 1 million cattle herds on an annual basis. Producers can reduce their risk of getting the disease by adding only test negative livestock from known negative herds to their own herds. When TB is found in a herd, it is eliminated by either depopulating the affected herds or by testing and then removing reactor animals from affected herds."

cervid (n; Latin [noun masculine] cervus deer)
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