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澳大利亚即将拥有核动力潜艇?可能没那么快

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发表于 11-8-2021 16:42:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 11-9-2021 14:51 编辑

Warsaw Gjetto was a walled prison.

Oaragraphs 3 and on continuously:


For decades, Mr Krutz, a retired X-ray technician from New Jersey, wondered who he really was. Born in Nazi-occupied Poland, he was adopted by a Jewish family that survived Holocaust and arrived in the US in 1969. His only clue to his true identity was the last name they told him he had been born with, Szczycki.

After years of fruitless searching for his birth family [presumably before the internet era], MrKrutz began to believe the name was made up.

“I’m done looking already. It’s obvious there’s nobody left,” Mr Krutz said he told himself at one point.

That is, until , until Mr. Krutz's daughter, Lisa Baron, a 45-year-old high-school English teacher, began her own investigation. Two years ago she joined a Hewish youth group pm a trip tp Po;amd, As she explained herfather;s search she decided to uncover the past, with the onset of the pandemic pusing her on further.

“The pandemic made us realize -- survivors aren’t going to be around forever,” Ms Baron said. “Life is so short I need to figure it out.”

Her first post on a Facebook group dedicated to tracing Jewish genealogy came around six months before the pandemic began. “Long shot! Looking for ideas,” her opening line read.

Ms Baron went on to explain how her father had been hidden as a child during World War II and that the Christian family that took him in said they knew nothing about his birth family, or how he came to be in their car, and asked for advice on what to do.

Get a DNA test, came a chorus of replies.


========================
储百亮, 澳大利亚即将拥有核动力潜艇?可能没那么快. 纽约时报, Nov 5, 2021
https://cn.nytimes.com/asia-paci ... powered-submarines/

, which is translated from

Chris Buckley, Hurdles in Australia, Britain and the US Imperil Submarine Deal; Looking for ways to hasten construction and train thousands of nuclear engineers.m New York Times, Oct 30, 2021, at page A8.
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/ ... red-submarines.html

Quote:

(a) "To pull off the plan, Australia must make major advances. It has a limited industrial base and built its last submarine over 20 years ago [unsuccessfully]. It produces a few graduates in nuclear engineering each year. Its spending on science research as a share of the economy has lagged the average for wealthy economies. Its past two plans to build submarines fell apart before any were made.

(b) "Australia is hoping for a reversal of fortune after more than a decade of misadventures in its submarine-modernization efforts. The plan for French-designed diesel submarines that Mr [Australia prime minister Scott] Morrison abandoned had succeeded a deal for Japanese-designed submarines that a predecessor championed.

" 'No living Australian prime minister has commissioned a sub that actually got built,' Greg Sheridan, a columnist for The Australian newspaper, wrote in a recent article critical of Mr Morrison's plan.

(c) "Australia operates one small nuclear reactor. Its sole university program dedicated to nuclear engineering produces about five graduates every year, said Edward Obbard, the leader of the program at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. Australia would need many thousands more people with nuclear training and experience if it wants the submarines, he said.

My comment:
(a) It is unbelievable, but NYT made this (English-language) report free.

(b)
(i) The French deal "had succeeded a deal [there had been NO deal between Australia and Japan] for Japanese-designed submarines that a predecessor [Australia PM Tony Abbott] championed."

Tim Kelly, Cyril Altmeyer and Colin Packham, How France sank Japan's $40 Billion Australian Submarine Dream. Reuters, Apr 26, 2016.
https://www.reuters.com/article/ ... ian-submarine-dream
(ii) "No living Australian prime minister has commissioned a sub that actually got built"

Collins-class submarine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collins-class_submarine  
(table: Preceded by Oberon class [which was designed by and built in UK], built 1990-2003, In commission  1996-present, completed 6; diesel-electric submarines; "The Collins class takes its name from Australian Vice Admiral John Augustine Collins; each of the six submarines is named after significant RAN [Royal Australian Navy] personnel who distinguished themselves in action during World War II)

Quote: On May 18, "1987, the Australian Cabinet approved the final design: [Swedish] Kockums' Type 471 submarine, fitted with the [American] Rockwell combat system and Diesel-Electric propulsion units provided by the French engineering firm Jeumont-Schneider. * * * two sections [out of a total of 6 sections] of the first submarine were constructed by Kockums' shipyard in Malmo, Sweden [this Wiki page does not talk about the other five]
(iii) It appears that Australia did built the other five, in Australia. See

Derek Woolner, Lessons of the Collins Submarine Program for Improved Oversight of Defence Procurement. Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Group, Information and Research Services, Australia Parliament, Sept 18, 2001
https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Par ... bs/rp/rp0102/02RP03
("The Australian Submarine Corporation (ASC) site at Outer Harbour in South Australia was established in 1989 at a cost of $100 million.([footnote] 41) Since then it has produced all submarines without a major mishap and worked up to a capacity for delivering one submarine per year")

The again , Collins-class submarines were done with construction in 2003.

(c) "Australia operates one small nuclear reactor."
(i) nuclear power in Australia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_Australia
("As of 2018, Australia has one operating nuclear reactor, the OPAL research reactor at Lucas Heights which supplies the vast majority of Australia's nuclear medicine. It replaced the High Flux Australian Reactor [HIFAR ] which operated from 1958 to 2007 at the same site. These are the only two nuclear reactors to have been used in Australia. Neither of them has been used to generate electricity")
(ii) Lucas Heights, New South Wales
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucas_Heights,_New_South_Wales
("It is located 31 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district ]separated by many 'suburbs' in between], in the local government area of the Sutherland Shire. * * * Unusually for a suburb, Lucas Heights does not contain a residential area. The residential area previously part of Lucas Heights was renamed Barden Ridge in 1996 to increase the real estate value of the area, as it would no longer be instantly associated with the HIFAR nuclear reactor.  Lucas Heights was named after John Lucas Senior, a flour miller who in 1823 was granted 150 acres (0.6 km2) [there]")
(A) Sutherland Shire is governed/ headed by "Sutherland Shire Council" (which seems to me is modeled after Eng;and's local "councils." The en.wikipedia.og for local government in England" says the topic is "complex." So I will leave it there.
(B) Not town or city, Lucas Heights and Barden Ridge are "suburbs" within Sutherland Shire. I fail to find out the form of a lcoalgoivernment there, if any.
(iii) "the OPAL research reactor"
(A) OPAL stands for "ppen-pool Australian lightwater reactor."  The en.wikipedia.org for that page, which is not informative, says, "Light water (normal H2O) is used as the coolant and moderator while heavy water (D2O) is used as the neutron reflector."

OPAL has nothing to do wih University of New South Wales. See research reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_reactor  
(section 6 Research reactor: OPAL is operated by Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ]an agency of Australia government)

So the sentence right after ("Its sole university program dedicated to nuclear engineering produces about five graduates every year") in quotation (c)should be in another p[aragraph.
(B) nuclear reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactor
(section 3 Reactor types, section 3.1 Classifications, section 3.1.3 By coolant:
• Water cooled reactor. These constitute the great majority of operational nuclear reactors: as of 2014, 93% of the world's nuclear reactors are water cooled
        • [p]ressurized water reactor (PWR) Pressurized water reactors constitute the large majority of all Western nuclear power plants.
                • A primary characteristic of PWRs is a pressurizer, a specialized pressure vessel. Most commercial PWRs and naval reactors [in submarines and aircraft carriers] use pressurizers. During normal operation, a pressurizer is partially filled with water, and a steam bubble is maintained above it by heating the water with submerged heaters. * * *
                • [p]ressurized heavy water reactors are a subset of pressurized water reactors * * *
        • oiling water reactor (BWR)[:] BWRs are characterized by boiling water around the fuel rods in the lower portion of a primary reactor pressure vessel.
* * *
        • [p]ool-type reactor can refer to unpressurized water cooled open pool reactors * * *")

In the pie chart to the right of this text:
PHWR = pressurized heavy-water reactor;
LWGR = light water graphite reactor;
FBR = Fast Breeder Reactor.
(C) The 2011 tsynami-induced Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster concerned boiling water reactors (BWRs).
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