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Galileo + Forgery + Papermaking + Watermark

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发表于 8-20-2022 11:52:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 8-20-2022 12:07 编辑

(1) The Galileo Manuscript. University of Michigan Library, Aug 17, 2022.
https://www.lib.umich.edu/collec ... /galileo-manuscript
(2) Michael Blanding, Library Prized Its Galileo Artifact, but Scholar Spotted a Red Flag; A detective story about whether or not a manuscript was authentic. New York Times, Aug 18, 2022, at page A1.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/ ... ty-of-michigan.html

Note:
(a)
(i) Galileo Galilei
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
(1564 (born in Pisa)  – 1642; section 1 Early life and family, section 1.1 Name)
(ii) Bergamo
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergamo
("40 km (25 mi) northeast of Milan," capital of Lombardy)

German-English dictionary:
* Heim (noun neuter): "home"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Heim
(iii) It appears to me that paper in ancient times EACH had a watermark. Unfortunately there is no photo of watermarks from true and forged papers; perhaps Professor Wilding wants to have them (photos) in his future book.
(iv) One can google the online title "A Watermark, and 'Spidey Sense,' Unmask a Forged Galileo Treasure" to find an online pirated copy in numerous sites.

(b)
(i) Can it (authentication) be done with radiocarbon dating?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
("half-life of 14C (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years"/ section 1 Background, section 1.2 Physical and chemical details)

The answer is no, due to the relatively long half life of carbon 14 to the issue at hand: when was the paper made, in the seventh or twentieth century?
(ii) See also
Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry. Steven O Nielsen's Chem 1312, University of Texas at Dallas, Apr 16, 2016
https://personal.utdallas.edu/~son051000/chem1312/Chapter20a.pdf
("The nucleus of an atom can change because of
o radioactive decay (some nuclei are unstable) 14 6C --> 14 7N + 0 -1 β
o nuclear transmutation (nucleus collides with a particle) 14 7N+ 1 0n --> 14 6C+ 1 1p (nitrogen in atmosphere; neutrons from cosmic rays)" )
(iii) transmute (v)
https://www.etymonline.com/word/transmute
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 楼主| 发表于 8-20-2022 12:04:52 | 显示全部楼层
(1) papermaking
(a) paper
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper
(section 2 Early sources of fibre; section 3 Etymology)
(b) 黄建强, 天水放马滩,一件件文物背后的中国源代码. 兰州晨报, Sept 10, 2020m at page B6 ("风物志").
http://www.lzcbnews.com/202009/10/content_13129.html
(" '放马滩纸。' 根据文物考古专家的断定,这是一张西汉文帝或景帝(公元前179年-前143年)时期的纸质地图,比1957年5月在陕西灞桥 [陕西省西安市灞桥区 (named after a bridge named 灞桥)] 发现的灞桥纸时间更早 * * * 此前,世界上最早的古地图是公元二世纪托勒密《地理学》一书中的地图,它比放马滩地图晚了将近五个世纪。  放马滩秦汉墓出土的纸质地图,证明早在战国时期纸就已经出现和应用,远远早于东汉蔡伦时代")
(i) 源代码  source code
(ii) For 甘肃省天水市, see 甘肃省
https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/甘肃省
(section 3 行政区划)
(iii) Ptolemy's world map
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy%27s_world_map
("It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy's book Geography, written c 150. * * * Notable features of Ptolemy's map is the first use of longitudinal and latitudinal lines * * *  the present form of the map was reconstructed from Ptolemy's coordinates by Byzantine monks under the direction of Maximus Planudes shortly after 1295. * * * The World [Atlantic] Ocean is only seen to the west. The map distinguishes two large enclosed seas: the Mediterranean and the Indian (Indicum Pelagus). * * * China is divided into two realms—the Qin (Sinae) and the Land of Silk (Serica)—owing to the different accounts received from the overland and maritime Silk Roads")
(iv) Claudius Ptolemy (here the last name is English spelling, whose Greek and Latin spelling are different. The first name is spelled the same in all three languages, which was Latin) was a geographer and astronomer, born and died in Egypt.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy
(section 1 Biography, section 1.1 Naming and nationality: "The name Claudius is a Roman name, belonging to the gens Claudia * * * The 9th century Persian astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi mistakenly presents Ptolemy as a member of Ptolemaic Egypt's royal lineage [whose last rulr was Cleopatra] * * * Ptolemy wrote in ancient Greek * * * was ethnically either a Greek or at least a Hellenized Egyptian")
(c) 刘辛味, 灞桥纸算纸?蔡伦是造纸术发明人还是改进者? 北京科技报, possibly Feb 1, 2019 and republished in 中国数字科技馆.
https://www.cdstm.cn/frontier/lswm/201903/t20190327_911535.html


(2) watermark
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watermark

section 1 History: "The origin of the water part of a watermark can be found back when a watermark was something that only existed in paper. At that time the watermark was created by changing the thickness of the paper and thereby creating a shadow/lightness in the watermarked paper. This was done while the paper was still wet/watery and therefore the mark created by this process is called a watermark.  Watermarks were first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282."

(3)
(a) Fabriano
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabriano
("a town of Ancona province in the Italian region of the Marche"/. section 1 History: "Fabriano itself was one of the earliest places in Europe to make high-quality paper on an industrial scale, starting in the 13th century")
(b) The place name Fabrino is from Latin-English dictionary
* faber (noun masculine): "craftsman"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/faber
* cartiera (noun feminine; plural cartiere): "paper mill"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cartiera
(c) James Martin, Fabriano: It's All About That Paper. L&B Italian Tours, July 28, 2016
https://lbitaliantours.com/italy ... ll-about-that-paper
("Can you name a business that's been able to sustain itself since the year 1264 * * * I'm talking Cariere Milani Fabriano * * * How do they perform this trick [of watermark] ? First you take a bit of wire and shape it into filigree designs, then attach it to the mesh of the paper molds: [photo caption:] Attaching the wire to the paper mold * * * By the 18th century, Fabriano was noted for a sort of watermark art with amazing image quality, like the one you see to the right of Italy's most popular politician [I am clueless about who he was]. * * * James Martin has been visiting Italy since 1975. He lives 5 months a year in the Lunigiana, a historic territory in northern Tuscany")
(i) First, there is a typo (typographic error). It should be "CarTiere Milani Fabriano"  -- with a "t" in between letters r and i. (The second time James Martin wrote the name of the company in this Web page, he did spell the first word correctly.)
(ii) Italian-English dictionary:
* cartiera (noun feminine; plural cartiere): "paper mill"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cartiera
(iii) Cartiere Miliani Fabriano
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartiere_Miliani_Fabriano
(A) This is an Italian wikipedia page. To translate from Italian to English, you can click English at the upper right corner, IF you are using Google Chrome. This is a papermaking company located in Fabriano that was founded in 1782 by Pietro Miliani.
(B) The definition of cartiere is listed in (3)(b) above.
(iv) The first quotation in James Martin, Fabriano is copied and pasted from
History and Tradition. Fabriano Boutique, undated
https://www.fabrianoboutique.com/history-and-tradition
("Finally, in 2002, Cartiere Miliani Fabriano was bought by Gruppo Fedrigoni, an important and well-known firm in the field of specialist paper.  Fabriano Boutique was started up in 2000. It is a Fedrigoni trademark")
(v) Paper-Making. In "About us." Fabriano ('part of the Fedrigoni Group'), undated
https://fabriano.com/en/paper-making/

Quote:

"One city, three revolutions[:] Watermark, animal gelatin, multiple hammer mill [to generate pulp from rags]. Using the same techniques applied by tanners and wool workers, the Fabriano paper makers adapted an ancient art to the needs of the modern world. * * * [

"Watermark[:] * * * It was applied as a trademark by artisans and, later, as an anti-counterfeiting security feature")

"Animal Gelatin[:] Gelatin obtained by boiling animal skins, especially rabbit skin. It is used as a base for paper sizing, the waterproofing process to make sheets non-porous to ink. It marked the beginning of the use of paper for official documents thanks to its greater shielding power."

(A) sizing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sizing
("Sizing or size is a substance that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials—especially papers and textiles—to act as a protective filler or glaze. Sizing is used in papermaking and textile manufacturing to change the absorption and wear characteristics of those materials. * * * There are three categories of papers with respect to sizing: unsized (water-leaf), weak sized (slack sized), and strong sized (hard sized). Waterleaf has low water resistance and includes absorbent papers for blotting [eg, paper towel]. Slack sized paper is somewhat absorbent and includes newsprint, while hard sized papers have the highest water resistance, such as coated fine papers and liquid packaging board [such as milk carton that is lined with plastic]")
(B) size
(n; First Known Use "15th century"/ etymology is same as size that mean 'physical magnitude'): "any of various glutinous materials (such as preparations of glue, flour, varnish, or resins) used for filling the pores in surfaces (as of paper, textiles, leather, or plaster) or for applying color or metal leaf (as to book edges or covers)"
(vt): "to cover, stiffen, or glaze with or as if with size"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/size

(vi) filigree
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filigree

filigree (n; Did You Know?)
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/filigree


(d) A picture is worth a thousand words. A video is even better. About how watermark was produced.

Timothy Barrett, Background: European Papermaking Techniques 1300-1800. In Paper Through Time; Non-destructive analysis of 14th century European-style papers. University Libraries, Iowa, last modified May 4, 2022
https://paper.lib.uiowa.edu/european.php
("Raw Materials[:] Water Fiber [please read the first couple of paragraphs and view the table, to understand why Fabrino used rags rather than, say, tree barks] * * * The The first YouTube link shows a short film, made by Anglia TV, describing all the processes in making fine paper including a section devoted to making and fitting a watermark to a mould. Simon Barcham Green narrates the film which was shot at Hayle Mill, his family business, located in Maidstone, Kent.  The film was made in 1976 when Hayle Mill was the last full scale production papermill in operation in England.  Hayle Mill continued in operation until 1987 when production ended following the deep economic recession of the early 1980s. Visit the following link and skip the first minute introduction if you wish. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xs3PfwOItto  ")
(e) Nathan Dorn and Sylvia Albro, Fabriano Paper in Library of Congress Collections. Library of Congress, Jan 31, 2017 (blog).
https://blogs.loc.gov/law/2017/0 ... library-of-congress
("In this post, we catch up with Library of Congress employee Sylvia Albro, who is a senior paper conservator in the Library's Conservation Division.  Last fall, Sylvia published a book * * * Fabriano: City of Medieval and Renaissance Papermaking * * * Although it [Fabriano] was not Europe’s first center of paper production, Fabriano became the most successful because the area introduced new technology to mass-produce paper at a time when literacy was rapidly growing in the Mediterranean basin.  According to Sylvia, three important innovations contributed to this success: 1) the introduction of a waterwheel powered system of multiple-head wooden stampers used to pound the rags into a suitable pulp; 2) the invention of a fixed-wire mould with a watermark design to identify the workshop in which the paper was made; and 3) the use of animal gelatin as a sizing agent to prepare the paper surface for the European quill pen and iron gall ink writing material then in use.  The natural geographic setting of the city of Fabriano was also a factor in its success; the spring water from the Apennine mountains that powered the waterwheels of the papermaking workshops or 'gualchiere' was very pure' to make speckless paper)
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