一路 BBS

 找回密码
 注册
搜索
查看: 33|回复: 0

Umayyad Mosque in Damascus

[复制链接]
发表于 9-22-2022 14:26:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 9-24-2022 10:56 编辑

Umayyad Mosque
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque
("also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus * * * Christian and Muslim tradition alike consider it the burial place of John the Baptist's head, a tradition originating in the 6th century. Muslim tradition holds that the mosque will be the place Jesus will return before the End of Days. * * * Under Roman rule, beginning in 64 CE, it was converted into the center of the imperial cult of Jupiter, the Roman god of rain, becoming one of the largest temples in Syria. When the empire in Syria transitioned to Christian Byzantine rule, Emperor Theodosius I (r[eign] 379–395) transformed it into a cathedral * * * After the Muslim conquest of Damascus in 634 * * * The [cathedral] structure was largely demolished and a grand congregational mosque complex was built in its place. * * * Unlike the simpler mosques of the time, the Umayyad Mosque had a large basilical plan with three parallel aisles and a perpendicular central nave leading from the mosque's entrance to the world's second concave mihrab (prayer niche). * * * The mosque initially had no minaret towers, as this feature of mosque architecture was not established until later. * * * The Minaret of the Bride was the first one [of the three minarets] built and is located on the mosque's northern wall. The exact year of the minaret's original construction is unknown")

Note:
(a)
(i) Umayyad Mosque is named after Umayyad dynasty
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_dynasty
("the ruling family of the Caliphate between 661 and 750 [capital Damascus (661-744)] and later of Al-Andalus between 756 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams")
, which ordered construction of the Mosque.
(ii) English dictionary:
* ibn (alternate form: bin)
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ibn


(b) mihrab
(i) Mosque of the Prophet (built by Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina; romanization of Arabic: Al-Masjid an-Nabawi)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Masjid_an-Nabawi
has world's first mihrab, which was added to the mosque "[d]uring the reign of the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Al-Walid I, r. 705–715)."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihrab
(ii) Robert Preston Photography, Interior of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria. Alamy, Oct 10, 2009
https://www.alamy.com/stock-phot ... syria-34298906.html
shows you the mihrab in Umayyad Mosque, when one stands at the entrance of Prayers Hall through the nave.
(iii) The significance of mihrab in Islamic architecture is that it points to Mecca, therefore the direction a prayer should face, However, a prayer does not enter the mihrab but prays outside of mihrab, as the following three photos demonstrate.
(A) mihrab
https://en.wikishia.net/view/Mihrab
(caption of the photo: "Mihrab of Masjid al-Nabi")

However, clicking "Masjid al-Nabi" leads to its (Wikishia's) own "Al-Masjid an-Nabawi." What is going on?  Well, We will have to learn Arabic.

Arabic-English dictionary:
* نبيء (noun masculine; romanization: nabi; etymology: same as nabiyy in meaning): "prophet"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/نبيء
   ^ Wiktionary does not have the item "nabawi." So I must return to
   Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Masjid_an-Nabawi
   ("Arabic: المسجد النبوي, lit. 'The Prophetic Mosque' ")
   The problem is when I copy the individual parts or sub-parts of the Arabic scripts above and paste it to Wiktinary, nothing comes up. And what is "an" in Arabic? (I know "al" is the -- there only one -- definite article in Arabic.)
   ^ Arabic definite article
   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_definite_article
   ("(Arabic: ٱلْـ), also Romanized as el- * * * as pronounced in some varieties of Arabic * * * Unlike most other Arabic particles, al- is always prefixed to another word and never stands alone. * * * Al- does not inflect for gender, number or grammatical case. The sound of the final -l consonant, however, can vary; when followed by a sun letter such as t, d, r, s, n and a few others, it assimilates to that sound, thus doubling it. For example: for 'the Nile,' one does not say al-Nīl, but an-Nīl. When followed by a moon letter, like m-, there is no assimilation: al-masjid ('the mosque'). This affects only the pronunciation and not the spelling of the article")
   ^ Now return to the Arabic spelling of Mosque of the Prophet: المسجد النبوي
   Each of the two words contains the article ٱلْـ at the far right. Excluding it and the dictionary form of the two words appears. See next.
* Wiktionary still does not have Arabic original نبوي (not just its romanization) of nabawi, Yet I come up with something very close:
Turkish-English dictionary: nebevi (adjective; etymology: "from Arabic نَبَوِيّ‎ (nabawiyy), adjective form of نَبِيّ‎ (nabiyy)"): "prophetic, related to a prophet"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nebevi
* مسجد (noun masculine; romanization: masjid): "mosque"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/مسجد
(B) "Muslim worshipers praying in direction of Mihrab in mosque of Isfahan, Iran" by "ID 104176668 © Pictura." Dreamstime.com, undated
https://www.dreamstime.com/worsh ... hrab-image104176668
(C) Fileamascus Umayyad Mosque interior mihrab area 8028 (retouched).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File\"\"amascus_Umayyad_Mosque_interior_mihrab_area_8028_(retouched).jpg


(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque
("a large basilical plan with three parallel aisles and a perpendicular central nave")
(i) Floor plan or layout of Umayyad Mosque (north at the top; with Minaret of the Bride in the mid of north wall; it makes sense that mihrab is on the south wall, as Mecca is south of Damascus)
ATTACHMENT is here.
(ii) Arabic-English dictionary:
* عروس (noun feminine; romanization: 'arūs): "bride"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/عروس
* مزار (noun masculine; romanization: mazar): "shrine"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/مزار
* يحيى  (proper name masculine; romanization: Yahya): "John"
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/يحيى
(iii)
(A) Minaret of Isa and Minaret of Qaytbay are at the right and left lower corners, respectively.
(B) Isa (name)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isa_(name)
(C) Qaitbay
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaitbay
(c 1416/1418 – 1496; Egypt sultan; "although Qaitbay fought sixteen military campaigns, he is best remembered for the spectacular building projects that he sponsored, leaving his mark as an architectural patron on Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, Aleppo [the preceding five were outside Egypt], Alexandria, and every quarter of Cairo")
(iv) Mazar Yahya marks Shrine of John the Baptist. Definitions are found right above.
(v) The 3-D structure, as opposed to the floor plan, can be found both at the top photo of the Wiki page for Umayyad Mosque AND
https://islamicarchitecturebydxx ... umayyad-mosque.html
(Mosque Elements -- Sahn | Courtyard)
(vi) From the floor plan, one can easily see the three aisles of equal width that make up the entire Prayer Hall, are divided by two rows of columns, Indeed that is the case.
(A) carolinarh, ISLAMIC ART-The First Mosques. In The Artistic Adventure of Mankind. Wordpress.com, Nov 26, 2017
https://arsartisticadventureofma ... mosque-of-damascus/
(photo caption: "The Umayyad Mosque, or Great Mosque of Damascus (Damascus, Syria) is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. After the Arab conquest of Damascus in 634, the mosque was built on the site of a Christian basilica dedicated to John the Baptist. A legend dating to the 6th century holds that the building contains the head of John the Baptist. The mosque is also believed by Muslims to be the place where Jesus will return at the End of Days. Top: Exterior view of the Great Mosque of Damascus. Bottom: Interior of the Great Mosque showing its 3 naves distribution")

Street to the left and courtyard to the right.
(B) Ross Burns, Damascus دمشق — itinerary 02 the Great Mosque of the Umayyads. Monument of Syria, Jan 4, 2014.
https://monumentsofsyria.com/places/damascus-دمشق-itinerary-02-the-great-mosque-of-the-umayyads/

Click the thumbnail at the right lower corner.


(d) Still:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque
("a large basilical plan with three parallel aisles and a perpendicular central nave")
(i) What does "perpendicular" mean? I thought it was from top to bottom (air to ground). Wrong. See
Annie Labatt, Great Mosque of Damascus. Department of Medieval Art and The Cloisters, The Met, May 9, 2012
https://www.metmuseum.org/exhibi ... orld/posts/damascus
("The mosque was unlike any before it, and its form was mirrored by later imperial mosques. Four minarets (all from different time periods) sit atop the four corners. Unlike earlier mosques, this structure's rectilinear proportions created a vast empty space. On three sides of the court there is a single-aisled portico. The fourth wall (known as the qibla [Arabic meaning the direction (to Mecca)]) has a long prayer hall that, similar to a Christian basilica, has an east-west axis. This prayer hall has three aisles that run parallel to the qibla wall and an axial nave that runs perpendicular to it. A pitched roof is aligned at right angles to the direction of prayer")
(A) portico
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portico  
("is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls")

It is the second definition ("a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns") that fits the bill. See
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque
, where a photo (caption: "Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque, view from east (left) towards west (right). Notable structures: Dome of the Clock (far left), and the Minaret of Isa (Jesus)") has eastern portico on the left flank (in the photo) and west portico on the right flank. In between is the (rectangular) Prayer Hall (whose wall facing the courtyard should be straight but looks convex due to distortion of the panorama).
(B) For "east-west axis," see nave
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nave
(ii) https://www.metmuseum.org/exhibi ... orld/posts/damascus
("an axial nave that runs perpendicular to it. A pitched roof is aligned at right angles to the direction of prayer")

https://islamicarchitecturebydxx ... umayyad-mosque.html
(two illustrations: "Mosque Elements: Arcades [or Aisles] parallel to the Qibla wall" [sic] and "Mosiue Elements: Intersection with central arcade"))


(e) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque
("The [cathedral] structure [for John the Baptist, erected by Byzantine Empire] was largely demolished" and Umayyad Mosque was built)
(i) In this Wiki page, look for a photo in the right margin whse caption reads: "Dome of the Treasury, built in 789–90."
(ii) Text in this page states, "In 789–90 the Abbasid governor of Damascus, al-Fadl ibn Salih ibn Ali, constructed the Dome of the Treasury with the purpose of housing the mosque's funds. * * * The Dome of the Treasury is an octagonal structure decorated with mosaics, standing on eight Roman columns in the western part of the courtyard."  

Pay attention to capital (architecture)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_(architecture)
atop each of the eight columns. These eight columns supporting Dome of the Treasury and Shrine of John the Baptist are just about all that is left from the cathedral.

floor plan.pdf

91.41 KB, 下载次数: 0

回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表