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4 Kyoto Zen Gardens (III)

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发表于 4-23-2024 15:27:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 choi 于 4-28-2024 10:54 编辑

I will return to 4 Kyoto Zen Gardens (II).


V Ukifune Garden

A  "Mr Keane's 2022 Ukifune Garden [浮舟庭] (Drifting Boat Garden) is an allegorical interpretation of the chapter by the same name from 'The Tale of Genji,' Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century novel [world's first] about Prince Hikaru or 'Shining' Genji, and his tempestuous romantic and political life at court.  Mr Keane designed it as the Zen courtyard garden of the Genji Kyoto hotel, opened in April 2022, on the banks of the Kamo River, near where Genji builds his own grand estate and gardens in the book. Designed by the American architect Geoffrey P Moussas, who also lives in Kyoto, the hotel's plan incorporates the indoor-outdoor characteristics of Kyoto's old merchant houses."
(a)
(i) 浮舟庭  ukifune niwa (The kanji 庭 has Chinese pronunciation tei (meaning a long vowel of e) and Japanese pronunciation niwa.)
(A) marc peter keane, Ukifune Garden 浮舟庭. undated.
https://www.mpkeane.com/ukifune-garden
(B) 庭園| 源氏京都 (video; featuring marc peter keane).
https://genjikyoto.com/zh/gardens
(ii)
(A) The Tale of Genji  源氏物語
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_Genji
("The original manuscript, created around the peak of the Heian period [794 to 1185 AD; preceded by 奈良時代 and followed by 鎌倉時代; each of the three periods were named after then capitals of Japan], no longer exists. It was made in 'concertina' or orihon [折本] style. * * * The work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji, or 'Shining Genji,' who is the son of an ancient Japanese emperor (known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo [桐壺 帝 (a fictional character)]) and a low-ranking concubine called Kiritsubo Consort" 桐壺 更衣 (another fictional character))
(B) Hikaru Genji (源氏物語 主人公) 光 源氏. That was his name in the novel, but not real name. In the novel, he was the second son of the emperor 桐壺帝の第二皇子. 光 from the fact that since childhood, he was handsomely glowing (ja.wikipedia.org: "幼少の頃から光り輝くばかりの美貌と才能に恵まれ、「光る君(ひかるきみ)」と綽名される。"). 源氏 from the fact that at age 3, his mother died. The emperor was afraid that if he succeeded as a child emperor lacking support 後援 from mother's side, not only was 帝位 but nation also, in danger. So the emperor, his father, demoted him as 臣 and conferred him the surname Minamoto 源 (whose Chinese pronunciation is Gen).
        Recall that in history, there were two factions among 臣 (who held real power, not the emperors): Minomoto and Taira 平. At the end of Heian period, the Taira clan, after military defeat, wa wiped out by committing mass suicides.
(C) MURASAKI Shikibu 紫 式部: The ja.wikipedia.org describes her this way: "下級貴族出身の紫式部 * * * 紫式部の実名や正確な生没年はわかっていない。"  (The murasaki is Japanese pronunciation of kanji 紫 (color).)

my translation of the second and last sentence: Her real name and 生没年 are unknown.
(iii) Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary:
* hikaru 光る 【ひかる】 (v): "to shine"
* oru 折る 【おる】(v)     (The ori is corresponding noun.)
* kiri 桐 【きり】 (n): "Paulownia tomentosa"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paulownia_tomentosa
("native to central and western China. It is an extremely fast-growing tree * * * is cultivated as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens. * * * In Japan, it is customary to plant seeds of the tree when a couple has a daughter; it is said that by the time the daughter is in her older teens or at the peak of adulthood when she is ready to marry, the tree by this time has also grown to maturity, which is then felled and made into a tansu [箪笥 (meaning cabinet; tansu is what Taiwanese call cabinet)] dresser as a wedding gift")

is different from Vernicia fordii, which in Taiwan and Japan (per ja.wikipedia.org) is called "油桐" (native to China, Burma and northern Vietnam; seeds generate 桐油
* The tsubo is kanji 壺's Japanese pronunciation.
* kō-i 更衣 【こうい】: "(1) (n,v) changing one's clothes; (2) (n) (arch[aic]) lady court attendant"
(b) Genji Kyoto (hotel) 源氏 京都
(c) Kamo River  鴨川
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamo_River
, whose section 3 History tells us that the river name has nothing to do with duck 鴨 (whose Japanese pronunciation is kamo), but everything to do with its ancient name Kamo, which became "賀茂川 or 加茂川" when Japanese adopted written system (from China; before that, they had not writing).
(d) For machiya 町屋 (English translation: wooden townhouse), see 町屋 (商家)
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/町屋_(商家)
(section 3 歴史: click illustrations)

Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary:
* shōka商家 【しょうか】 (n): "(1) merchant; store; shop; (n) (2) merchant house; merchant family"


B  "Mr Keane was inspired by the 'Genji' scene in which one of two powerful dignitaries vying for the favor of Ukifune, a woman of 22, travels through a snowstorm and absconds with her by boat on the Uji River. As they pass the Isle of Orange Trees, she recites a poem in which she likens herself to the drifting boat: 'The enduring hue of the Isle of Orange Trees may well never change,/ yet there is no knowing now where the drifting boat is bound.' "
(a) The bottom line is that Uji River does not pass through City of Kyoto (Only Kamo River does). There is this river whose name changes along the course: from 瀬田川 through 宇治川 to 淀川. The portion of this river that passes through Prefecture of Kyoto 京都府 (but not City of Kyoto 京都) is 宇治川. See 淀川  Yodogawa
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/淀川  
(map 3/ section 2 地理: "大津市で琵琶湖から流れ出る。ここでは瀬田川と呼ばれる。京都府に入る辺りで宇治川と名を変え、さらに京都府と大阪府の境界付近、大山崎町で桂川・木津川と合流する。この合流地点より下流が狭義での淀川となる。その後も大阪平野をおおむね南西に流れ、大阪市で大阪湾に注ぐ"/ section 2.1 名前の由来: the three names for each portion of the river comes from the place names the river passes through.

my translation: The river flows out of 琵琶湖 at [滋賀県] 大津市, here it is called 瀬田川. Upon entering 京都府 it is now 宇治川. Further downstream at the borders of 京都府 and 大阪府, combining with 桂川・木津川 this river is called 淀川 in the narrow sense 狭義. Passing through 大阪平野, the river empties into 大阪湾 at 大阪市.

(b)
(i) The woman's name Uki-fune 浮舟 is the headliner: 『源氏物語』五十四帖の第51帖 巻名.
(ii) The kanji 浮 has two verbs, both in Japanese pronunciations: uku 浮く as intransitive and ukasu 浮かす as transitive (Chinese verb does not have this distinction). The verb uku 浮く has corresponding noun uki 浮き (as in uki-yo-e 浮世絵 (kanji 絵 has Chinese pronunciation 3 and no Japanese pronunciation).
(iii) The kanji 舟 has Chinese pronunciation shū and Japanese pronunciation fune.
(c)
(i) The man's name 匂宮 -- en.wikipedia.or for "The Tale of Genji" as His Perfumed Princess, The Perfumed Princess, or The Fragrant Princess -- is the headliner: 『源氏物語』五十四帖の第42帖 巻名.
(ii) To this date, Japanese top male royals have 宮 in the titles. See 宮
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/
(may refer to
• 皇居・宮殿のこと。
• 皇族、特に親王のこと。)
(iii) Presently, among Japanese royals 皇族, only two men had or have only 宮 in the title: the reigning emperor has both given name Naruhito 徳仁 and 御称号 浩宮 (pronunciation  hiro-no-miya; judging from hiro, 浩 means broad) six days after his birth. See 徳仁
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/徳仁
("1960年(昭和35年)2月23日16時15分、皇太子明仁親王と同妃美智子(いずれも当時)の第1皇男子 * * * 誕生時から即位までの身位を付した呼称は、「徳仁親王」(なるひと しんのう)* * * 同年2月29日に命名の儀において祖父の昭和天皇が御名を「徳仁(なるひと)」称号を「浩宮(ひろのみや)」と命名した。「浩宮」の称号は四書五経のうちの『中庸』第32章にある「浩々たる天」、「徳仁」の名は同じく「聡明聖知にして天徳に達する者」を典拠とする。 「        肫肫たる其の仁、淵淵たる其の淵、浩浩たる其の天。苟くも固に聡明聖知にして天徳に達する者ならざれば、其れ孰か能くこれを知らん。」")

my translation: He was born on Feb 23, 1960, as the first male of Crown Prince 明仁親王 and his wife 美智子 ( ( ( Between the birth and ascension to the throne, he was known as 徳仁親王 * * * On Feb 29 that year, his grandfather (the emperor 昭和天皇) named him 徳仁 and 浩宮. Both 徳仁 and 浩宮 cane from 『中庸』第32章 [in Chinese]: 肫肫其仁,渊渊其渊,浩浩其天。苟不固聪明圣知达天德者,其孰能知之.   

The en.wikipedia.org says that since his 年号 is Reiwa 令和, after his death he will be 令和天皇. (The page does not say what happens when an emperor has several 年号 (in centuries past, emperors changed 年号 to improve luck, such as when disasters struck).
(iv) 徳仁 has one only daughter, who under (modern) Japanese law, can not ascend to the throne. 徳仁’s younger brother has given name 文仁 (hence 文仁親王) and (御)称号 秋篠宮. 文仁 has two older daughters and one son 悠仁親王 (no 称号).
(v) The ja.wikipedia.org for 宮号 states that it was places where (Japanese) princes live 皇子の居所, but soon became their 尊称.
(d)
(i)
(A) 浮舟 (源氏物語)
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/浮舟 (源氏物語)
("巻名は、薫 [表向きは光源氏の次男; English translation: on the surfae 薫 was the second son of 光源氏 -- on the surface, because his consort had an affair also] の庇護を受けていた女が匂宮に連れ出されて宇治川対岸の隠れ家へ向かう途中に詠んだ和歌「橘の小島の色はかはらじをこのうき舟ぞゆくへ知られぬ」([in modern Japanese 現代語訳] 橘の茂る小島の色のようにあなたの心は変わらないかも知れないけれど、水に浮く小舟のような私の身は不安定でどこへ漂ってゆくかも知れません)に因む")

my translation: The title of the 巻 is about a woman under the wing of 薫, who was abducted [passive form of the verb 連れ出す meaning take someone out] by 匂宮 headed toward 向かうa hideout across Uji River 宇治川対岸/ Midway, she 詠 (which could be recited or chanted or sang) 和歌 and associated 因む (more naturally in English: liken * * * to) herself with the waka poem [and specially the floating boat] * * *

(B) The same Wiki page after the quotation states, "薫27歳の春の話。   薫は浮舟を宇治の山荘に放置したまま、訪れるのも間遠であった。一方、匂宮は二条院で見かけた女のことが忘れられない。"

my translation: The following happened when 薫 was 27.  薫 put 浮舟 at 宇治 [present-day 市] の山荘, but rarely visited. On the other hand 一方, 匂宮 caught sight of (happened to see) 見かけた 浮舟 at 二条院 and could not forget her.
(ii) Ukifune
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukifune
("Ukifune is the unrecognized daughter of the Eighth Prince [the preceding ja.wikipedia.org says that she was '光源氏の弟である宇治八の宮の三女'/ in other words, 宇治八の宮 was 桐壺帝の第八皇子 (recall 光 源氏 was 桐壺帝の第二皇子)], the half sister of Oigimi [大君] and Nakanokimi [中君], and a young lady of uncommon beauty and grace. She lives with her mother at a distance from the royal court, shielding her from courtly politics; she is considered naive as such. Both Kaoru [薫, who was 光源氏の次男 (see above)] and Prince Niou [匂宮 (pronunciation niō(no)miya; both ou and ō are from different romanization systems, for the same long vowel of o] court Ukifune and seek her love, and she agonizes over the proper choice")

The ja.wikipedia.org for 大君 (disambiguation) says that 大君 (when pronounced as oigimi) is "貴族の長女の尊称。次女は「中の君」、以下「三の君」「四の君」と続く。源氏物語に宇治の大君として例が見える."

Eighth Prince 宇治八の宮's wife procreated 大君 and 中君. The wife died, and Eighth Prince had the niece of the wife; the niece bore 浮舟, whom Eighth Prince did not recognize as his own daughter (for reason unclear to me).

What is the relationship between 光源氏 and 匂宮? In The Tale of Genji, the first emperor was 桐壺帝, whose first son 第一皇子 would succeed him as 朱雀帝. The third emperor (after the death of 朱雀帝) in the Tale was 冷泉帝, whom the eja.wikipedia.org for 源氏物語 so describes under the heding of : "末子とされる冷泉帝は、桐壺帝の実子でなく、源氏の子。"
my translation: Nominally 冷泉帝 was 桐壺帝's last son, but in reality 冷泉帝 was not 桐壺帝's biological son 実子. Rather 冷泉帝 was 光源氏's biological son.
The fourth emperor in the Tale (after the death of 冷泉帝 was 今上帝, the eldest son of 朱雀帝. 匂宮 was the third son of 今上帝. In conclusion, 匂宮 was two generations behind 光源氏, or 光源氏 の 孫. Recall 薫 was 光源氏の次男.  
The genealogy is displayed in 遠藤真治, 宇治十帖(その1). 京都奈良歷史散步, undated.
www.honnet.jp/metro/rekisi/r182/rekisi22.htm

Regarding 宇治十帖. "「源氏物語」五四帖のうちの最後の十帖は、光源氏の死後の物語で薫大将を主人公とし、舞台が宇治であることから特別に「宇治十帖」と呼ばれています。": from the Web.

my translation:  The last ten 帖 out of the 54 帖 in The Tale of Genji are 宇治十帖 whose protagonist 主人公 was 薫大将 after death of 光源氏, and the stage was set at 宇治 (in lieu of Kyoto). Hence the name.  
(e) Jim Breen's online Japanese-English dictionary:
* kaku-re-ga 隠れ家 【かくれが】 (n): "(1) hiding place; hideout; refuge; (n) (2) retreat; hideaway"
* kojima 小島 【こじま】 (n): "small island; islet"  (The kanji 小 has prefix ko- or o- as Japanese pronunciation.)
* kawaru 変わる 【かわる】 (v): "to change"
(f) You may not be interested in Japanese language: the modern one, much less the ancient one. But I do, and spend days trying to understand this poem. Chinese may be able to read old or ancient Chinese, particularly after annotation. Japanese of the foregone era is the same.
(i) The nu ぬ at the end of this poem means "not" in ancient Japanese, which is replaced "na-i" ない in modern Japanese.
The 知られ(る) prior to ぬ is passive form of
Jim Breen Japanese-English dictionary:
* shiru 知る 【しる】 (v): "to know"
(ii) The ji じ is "may not," denoting speculation (in English: it may not rain).
(iii) The term かはらじ (pronunciation: kawaraji, where は is pronounced wa, rather than ha: Until a century ago, は had been pronounced wa. And わ (pronunciation: wa; "字源  和の草書体": ja.wikipedia.org) was not introduced until a century ago.
The verb kawaru is defined in (e) immediately above.
I know this with the help of
Haruo SHIRANE 白根 治夫, Classical Japanese;  A grammar. Columbia University Press, 2005, at page 181
https://books.google.com/books?i ... apanese&f=false
("よろず代[pronounced yo よ] 経[pronounced fu, in ancient Japanese only] 色[pronouonced iro] はかはらじ. Yorozu yo fu TOMO iro was kawaraji.
(As for the beautiful small pine at the Kamo shrine) even if ten thousand (yorozu) generations (yo) were to pass (fu tomo), its color (iro) would probably not change (kawara-ji). (KKS, Azumauta [東歌, waka 和歌 written in Eastern Dialect: en.wikipedia.org; azuma 東 is defined below], No. 1100, NKBT 8:329)  (Fu tomo is the shūshikei [終止形] of the shimo-nidan [下二段] verb fu, 'to pass time,' and the conjunctive particle tomo. Kawara-ji is the mirenkei [未然形] of the yodan [四段] verb 'kawaru,' to change, and the shūshikei of the auxiliary verb ji, which is negative speculative.")

The Kamo Shrine 賀茂神社 is located on both banks of Kamo River in Kyoto.

Jim Breen Japanese-English dictionary:
* azuma 東 【あずま】 (n): "(arch[aic]) eastern Japan (esp. Kamakura or Edo, from perspective of Kyoto or Nara)"
* tomo とも (particle): "even if"
* The kanji 万 has Chinese pronunciation "man" and Japanese pronunciation "yorozu."   
(iv) Apple, pear, quince, apricot, plum, peach, almond are in deciduous Rosaceae family.
Latin-English dictionary:
The rosaceae is an inflection of Latin adjective masculine rosāceus, meaning "having the color or fragrance of roses." Wiktionary.
        On the other hand, mandarin orange, orange, and grapefruit are in the evergreen Citrus genus. The citrus is Latin noun feminine.

(iv) About を, which was pronounced as wo but is now pronounced as o.
Japanese and Korean are the only two languages in the world where an object comes before (rather than after) a transitive verb, separated (interposed) by を (otherwise you may miss the syntaxL the object and the verb).
In this poem, を is similar to the "that" in the English sentence "I think that * * * may not * * *" -- except that "I think" is omitted, leaving "that * * * may not” where "may not " is represented by "じ."
Here is a comment I find in the Web: "In old Japanese, nominalizer [nominalizer means converting a verb to a noun, here by adding こと 事 (pronunciation: koto)] こと was not used, and verbs could be directly followed by を, が, etc. Today, this grammar is mainly seen in proverbs (e.g., 負けるが勝ち, 足るを知る者は富む [from 老子の「道徳経」第三十三章: 知足者富], 聞くは一時の恥)."

In all three Japanese proverbs aforementioned, the 者 もの (pronounced mono; the same pronunciation can be represented by kanji 物, meaning thing) is omitted.

In the two examples below, the natural English translations are what I find in the Web, and not authored by me.

負けるが勝ち
literal meaning: (To) Lose is a win (The verb 勝つ katsu has the corresponding noun 勝ち kachi: the verb in the second syllable moves from u row to i row).  I win by losing.
in natural English: ・He that [or who] fights and runs away [knowing he is losing] may live to fight another day [rather than die there]. ・Better bend than break.

Tea master 千利休 said, "聞くは一時の恥, 聞かぬは一生の恥."
・literal meaning: He who asks [聞く has two definitions in Japan: hear or ask (as in here)] is a fool for five minutes, but he who does not ask remains a fool forever.
・in natural English: There's no such thing as a stupid question. Better to ask and be embarrassed once than to never ask and be embarrassed forever.
(v) So, what does the WHOLE poem mean? The NYT translation (which I reproduced in (B): "she likens herself to the drifting boat: "The enduring hue [or color] of the Isle of Orange Trees may well never change,/ yet there is no knowing now where the drifting boat is bound' ") is lateral translation of the poem.
        In the Web, I also find: "While I believe your heart will not [I believe * * * not is the ji in kawaraji] change like the color of islands with tachibana (Mandarin orange tree) thickly grown, I am not sure where I am going to since I am in an unstable position like Ukifune." Which is closer to the  現代語 訳 in ja.wikipedia.org shown in (d): 橘の茂る小島の色のようにあなたの心は変わらないかも知れないけれど、水に浮く小舟のような私の身は不安定でどこへ漂ってゆくかも知れません.

my translation of the preceding 現代語 訳 (translation into modern language; 英語 訳=translation into English): Though your heart probably may not change, like the lush orange trees in the small island, I guess, my body is unmoored 不安定, uncertain where, like a boat floating on water, the boat will drift.

(vi) Still about the poem, but on the last legs: "このうき舟ぞゆくへ"
• この (pronounced kono) = this (even in modern Japanese)
• うき舟 = 浮舟 (except that 浮 is spelled out in hiragana うき )pronounced uki))
• Jim Breen Japanese-English dictionary:
* ぞ (prt [particle]): "(used at sentence end) adds force [intensifier]  <そろそろ寝る時間だぞ。 It's time you went to bed.>"
    ^ The ぞ is "used at sentence end." So the poem is, in the Web, sometimes partitioned this way: このうき舟ぞ  ゆくへ知られぬ.
• The kanji 行く (meaning to go) can be pronounced iku いく or yuku ゆく(as here).
• The へ is usually pronounced he, but when indicating toward (as here) is  pronounced e -- without h.

In Japanese, just about everything is called particle which is not a verb, noun or adjective. I will call it a preposition (after English).
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 楼主| 发表于 4-23-2024 15:27:17 | 显示全部楼层
---------------------------NYT text for this part ofarticle
Ukifune Garden

Mr. Keane’s 2022 Ukifune Garden (Drifting Boat Garden) is an allegorical interpretation of the chapter by the same name from “The Tale of Genji,” Murasaki Shikibu’s 11th-century novel about Prince Hikaru or “Shining” Genji, and his tempestuous romantic and political life at court.

Mr. Keane designed it as the Zen courtyard garden of the Genji Kyoto hotel, opened in April 2022, on the banks of the Kamo River, near where Genji builds his own grand estate and gardens in the book. Designed by the American architect Geoffrey P. Moussas, who also lives in Kyoto, the hotel’s plan incorporates the indoor-outdoor characteristics of Kyoto’s old merchant houses.

Mr. Keane was inspired by the “Genji” scene in which one of two powerful dignitaries vying for the favor of Ukifune, a woman of 22, travels through a snowstorm and absconds with her by boat on the Uji River. As they pass the Isle of Orange Trees, she recites a poem in which she likens herself to the drifting boat: “The enduring hue of the Isle of Orange Trees may well never change,/ yet there is no knowing now where the drifting boat is bound.”

Mr. Keane consulted with John Carpenter, the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s curator of Japanese art, who told him of the late-16th-century “Genji” screen painting by Tosa Mitsuyoshi in the museum’s collection illustrating this famous scene. A copy of the panel now hangs in Kyoto next to the garden.

Mr. Keane installed a swerving “river” with gray river stones set ingeniously on edge rather than flat, giving the flow a greater sense of direction. The garden is set between two wings of the hotel, and the “water” appears to tumble down like a waterfall from one building into the next with a wide, flat steel bridge above, a viewing platform bringing the design to life. The banks on either side are densely planted with maple trees, lady palms, ferns and ground-cover moss. And a boat-shaped stone carries a large patch of moss, which Mr. Keane interprets as Earth drifting through the galaxy.

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